新SAT语法:逻辑比较“潜规则”

所属专题:SAT考试  来源:新东方    要点:2016年新SAT首考  
编辑点评: 美国时间2016年3月5日,改革后的新SAT第一次考试在北美落下帷幕。本文是新SAT语法中的逻辑比较考点做的分析。

美国时间2016年3月5日,改革后的新SAT第一次考试在北美落下帷幕。本文是新SAT语法中的逻辑比较考点做的分析。

首先,我们来看一看OG中对于逻辑比较考点的陈述:

Problems with illogical comparisons arise when unlike or dissimilar things are treated as equivalent. (OG P.151)

在新SAT有关比较的试题中,作比较的两部分一定要具有可比性。在比较对象为A of B或者sb's +N的结构中,第二个比较对象在SAT中如果采用省略形式,在做题时,要补出具有that of/those of 形式或者's的部分。

重要的事情说三遍:

When a sentence compares two or more things, check to make sure that the items being compared are parallel in nature.
那么当出现哪些词的时候我们需要特别注意比较的可比性呢?

比较关系

同级比较

As…as

比较级

More…than

adj-er than

Less…than

相似

Like

Similar to

差异

Unlike

Be different/differ from

Distinct from

Compared with

隐含比较

From…to…

当题干中出现这些词的时候,我们就要开始考虑比较对象是否可比这个问题。如何使得比较对象可比,我们主要挑选以下两点来进行阐述。

1.关于补that 和those 的问题

先看下列例句:

The cost of living in the city differs from the suburb.

这是一个典型的错句。句中的比较标志词是differ from, 句中用the cost of living in the city和the suburb做比较,这显然是不可比的。正确的比较是:

The cost of living in the city differs from that in the suburb.

这个句子中如果比较的对象是可数单数或者不可数时,则第二个比较对象要用that来指代第一个比较对象;当然,如果比较的对象是个复数概念,则第二个比较对象要用those来指代第一个比较对象。

下面我们结合真题来看一看新SAT语法是如何考察比较考点的。

KH11-Taking on Gatsby: A Director’s Tall Task:

Many viewers want to see the literary source portrayed on screen exactly as it was written, especially when the plot and characters are as memorable as [Q 4] that of The Great Gatsby.

Question 4.

A. NO CHANGE

B. those of

C. the one in

D. Delete the underlined portion.

本题中,比较的标志词是as…as, 是将plot and characters和The Great Gatsby的plot and characters 在做比较,plot and characters为复数概念,所以我们选择用those 指代。正确答案:B

KH22-Toshio Fukuda: Medical Robotics Pioneer

Today, Dr. Fukuda has moved from the world of the micro-robot to [Q4] the macro-robot. He is busy developing full-sized medical models of patients scheduled to undergo complex surgical procedures.
Question 4. 

A.NO CHANGE

B.that of the macro-robot.

C.those of the macro-robot.

D.macro-robots.

本题中,比较的标志词是from…to…, 是将the world of the micro-robot和the world of macro-robot在做隐性比较,world为单数概念,所以我们选择用that指代。正确答案:B

新SAT OG-T4-Q12

Some people buy organic food because they believe organically grown crops are more nutritious and safer for consumption than [Q12] the people who purchase their conventionally grown counterparts, which are usually produced with pesticides and synthetic fertilizers.
Question 12.

A. NO CHANGE (the people who purchase)

B. the purchase of

C. purchasing

D. DELETE the underlined portion.

本题中,比较的标志词是more nutritious and safer than…, 是将organically grown crops和conventionally grown counterparts在做比较(注意),而不是将crops和people或者purchase进行比较。正确答案:D

2.关于比较结构中补助动词的问题

在比较结构的第二部分中,第二个比较对象后面常要补一个助动词,以使比较对象更加清楚。试比较一下两个句子的不同之处。

I love Mary more than my parents.

I love Mary more than my parents do.

第一个句子的意思是:"我爱Mary比我爱我父母多一些",是Mary与没my parents之间做比较;而第二个句子的意思是"我要比我父母更爱Mary",是I与my parents之间做比较。

一般而言,当两个主语部分做比较时,SAT倾向于在第二个主语后加上助动词(do/did/does, 助动词的形式视前面动词而定),助动词的形式。例外情况是第一个主语后没有宾语,如:I run more quickly than you. 在此句中,只能是I和you作比较,不会产生歧义。试看下列例句中补助动词的用法。

Yesterday I went to the cinema earlier than they did. (前面动词为一般过去时,第二个主语后补出did)

I do my homework better than Mary does. (前面动词为一般现在时,第二个主语为三单,后补出does.

新SAT OG-T3-Q28:How Do You Like Those Apples?

But some fruits do not respond as well to 1M C P as others [Q28] did, and some even respond adversely.
Question 28.

A. NO CHANGE 

B. do,

C. have,

D. will,

本题中,比较的标志词是as…as…, 是将some fruits respond to 1-MCP和others respond to 1-MCP在做隐性比较,respond为一般现在时,others 为复数,所以我们选择在others之后补出do。正确答案:B

以上就是新SAT语法中的逻辑比较的一些规则,希望对考生们有所帮助!

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