双语科学站:原子与分子

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Atoms and Molecules

原子与分子

particle    atoms    proton   neutron   electrons    Periodic Table of Elements 元素周期表

molecule    sodium

The tiny particles that make up elements are called atoms. An atom is the smallest unit of an element that retains or keeps the properties of that element. For example, the atoms that make up oxygen can never be changed.

组成元素的微小粒子称为原子。一个原子是一种元素能保持其化学性质的最小单位。例如,组成氧气的原子是永远无法改变的。

The inside of an atom contains three different kinds of particles as well. They are called protons, neutrons, and electrons. Surprisingly, atoms are not solid, they are mostly empty space. There is a tiny, very dense body in the center of an atom called the nucleus. Inside the nucleus are the protons and neutrons. The electrons are in the space outside the nucleus.

A proton carries one unit of positive electric charge. An electron carries one unit of a negative electric charge. Neutrons have no electric charges. The number of protons in an atom determines what the element is. An oxygen atom, for example, has eight protons.

质子带一个单位的正电荷。一个电子带一个单位的负电荷。中子不带电荷。原子内指的数量决定了它是哪一种元素。例如,一个氧原子就含有8个质子。

The Periodic Table of Elements shows the number of protons for each element. The element or substance called sodium has eleven protons. Sodium is a substance when combined with another substance makes salt. As in all kinds of matter, the different elements can be a solid, liquid, or gas.

元素周期表展示了每种原子的质子数。钠元素或钠单质含有11个质子。钠元素与另一种元素结合能够形成盐。就像所有的物质一样,不同的元素可能以固态、液态或是气体的形式存在。

The different kinds of atoms are then joined together to make a molecule. A molecule is a particle that contains more than one atom joined together. Basically, atoms come together in different ways to make molecules, and molecules come together in different ways to make different kinds of matter.

不同的原子结合形成分子。分子是一种包含了两个或两个以上原子的结合体。基本上,通过原子的不同组合方式形成分子,分子的不同组合方式又形成无数种物质。

Water is an example of a molecule made up of different atoms. The atoms for water include hydrogen and oxygen. It takes two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen to make one molecule of water. This would be an extremely tiny drop of water a person could not see without a special microscope. Some elements are made up of single atoms and do not attach to any other kinds atoms. Neon is an example of an atom that does not attach to another atom.

例如,水分子是由不同的原子组成,水分子内有氢原子和氧原子。两个氢原子与一个氧原子结合成一个水分子。然而这个分子极小,如果没有显微镜,人类的肉眼无法看见。氖就是一种不与任何原子结合的原子。

However, there are certain atoms that attach to themselves to make different substances. For example, oxygen is usually made up of two-atom molecules. But, a three-atom molecule of oxygen will create ozone. Oxygen and ozone is very different from each other but both use oxygen atoms to be formed.

然而,有一些原子与自身结合形成物质。例如,氧气分子通常由两个氧原子组成。然而,三个氧原子能组成臭氧分子。虽然氧气和臭氧分子都是由量原子构成,但是两者完全不同。

Most everyday substances people use are made up of a combination of different molecules. Table salt is made up of an element called sodium joined with an element called chloride. Sodium chloride is the scientific name for salt. The different atoms making up sodium and chloride are joined together to make a new substance and molecule called salt.

日常生活中也有很多物质是不同分子的结合。例如,餐桌上的盐就是有两种称为钠元素和氯元素构成的。盐的化学名称就是氯化钠。组成钠和氯的不同原子结合形成了一种新的物质和分子成为盐。

Sometimes the use of atoms and molecules can be very confusing but it sometimes can be thought of as a recipe. In summary, the particles (or ingredients) that make up an atom are protons, neutrons, and electrons. Atoms (another ingredient) are particles joined together in many different ways and methods to form molecules. Finally, the molecules (more ingredients) are joined together to make everything on Earth and in the universe.

有时候,原子和分子的使用让人十分困惑,但是有时候却可以想象成一道菜谱。总之,组成原子的成分是质子、中子、电子。原子以不同的方式方法结合形成分子。最后,分子以不同方式结合形成地球、宇宙万物。

1) The smallest unit of an element that retains or keeps the properties of that element is called

A: A molecule   B: An atom

C: A proton      D: A neutron

2) Which of the following does not have an electrical charge?

A: Neutron       B: Electron

C: Neuron        D: Proton

3) The Periodic Table of Elements show the number of __________ for each element.

A: Neutrons     B: Electrons

C: Atoms         D: Protons

4) How many more protons does sodium have than oxygen?

A: 8              B: 11

C: 3              D: 1

5) Protons, electrons, and neutrons make up atoms and atoms make up

A: Substances         B: Matter

C: Molecules            D: Solids

6) Sodium Chloride is the scientific name for which of the following substance?

A: Water                B: Sugar

C: Gas                   D: Salt

         

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