双语科学站:雷暴、龙卷风、飓风

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Storms, Tornadoes, and Hurricanes

雷暴、龙卷风、飓风

severe   sleet   thunderhead    cumulonimbus   spun off    funnel    equator   cyclones       

There are different types of storms which can occur anywhere in the world are thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes. Each of these thunderstorms can become strong enough to cause severe damage, property loss, or worse.

风暴可能会在世界的任何一个角落发生。风暴的类型有:雷暴、龙卷风、飓风。任何一场风暴都十分强大,往往造成巨大的破坏和财产损失乃至更严重的后果。

The first type is the thunderstorm, which is the most common kind of storm. Thunderstorms can produce lightning, thunder, rain, sleet, hail, or even snow. Thunderstorms form in clouds called thunderheads or cumulonimbus clouds where the storms cause lightning. The lightning in turn heats the air and causes a noise called thunder. Most thunderstorms have heavy rain and high winds. Thunderstorms can occur anywhere in the world.

第一种就是雷暴。雷暴是最常见的一种风暴。常常伴有闪电、雷电、大雨、雨夹雪、冰雹乃至大雪。雷暴以云砧或者积雨云的形式形成,在云与云之间产生了闪电,同时放出很大的热量并造成了巨大的噪音,于是就有了打雷。大部分的雷暴都伴随着暴雨和狂风。雷暴可以发生在世界各地。

A second type of storm which is spun off of violent thunderstorms is called a tornado. A tornado is a powerful spinning wind that moves across the ground in a narrow path. These form when the Earth's surface is very warm and the warm air rises and gets very strong. This can lead to a tornado. The air rushes in from all sides at very high speeds, and the air curves into a spin. As the tornado gets stronger, a funnel will form and in most cases it will eventually touch the ground. In the center of a tornado the wind speeds can reach about 300 miles per hour. The speed inside the funnel, though, is not the same speed at which the tornado moves across the ground. The tornado moves at different speeds and may change directions. Everything in the path of a tornado can be destroyed. Most tornadoes in the United States take place in the Midwest and in the South during the early spring or summer. When a tornado forms over water it is called a waterspout.

第二类风暴就是强雷暴的产物:龙卷风。龙卷风是一种能量巨大的高速旋转在地面小范围移动的风暴。通常情况下,龙卷风都是由于地表温度高,大量暖空气不断上升。四周的空气以高速向上,形成了一个漩涡。随着云团越来越大,最终将触及地面,形成一个漏斗。在龙卷风的中心,风速高达300英里每小时。漏斗内部的风速与地表的风速不尽相同。龙卷风以不同的风速运动着,并且可能会改变方向。龙卷风经过之地通常一片狼藉。在美国,龙卷风通常法系在中西部或是南部,而且通常以早春或夏日居多。水面上形成的称为海龙卷。

The final type of storm is a hurricane. Hurricanes are very large swirling storms with very low pressure at their center that form over warm tropical oceans near the equator. Hurricanes create a large number of thunderstorms while they are moving across the water and when heading towards landfall. Some hurricanes may also produce tornadoes as they move closer to land. In addition, they cause high waves and widespread flooding in coastal areas.

最后一种风暴是飓风。飓风是巨大的旋转风暴,中心气压极低,通常形成于赤道周围的热带海洋。飓风登陆时会形成无数的雷暴,导致了巨大的浪潮和沿海地区广泛的洪涝。

The weather in the eye of a hurricane is usually calm. The eye of a hurricane can be anywhere 2 to 200 miles in diameter. As a hurricane arrives on land they begin to lose some of their strength but are still very dangerous and can cause serious damage to property and may cause the loss of life. The wind flow of hurricanes above the equator is clockwise, but the wind flow for hurricanes below the equator are counter-clockwise. Hurricanes may also be called or referred to as tropical storms, cyclones, or typhoons.

本课小结:飓风眼通常都很平静。飓风眼可能在直径为2到200 英里任意一点。当飓风着陆后,能量逐渐减弱,但是也十分危险,可能造成巨大的财产损失和人员伤亡。在北半球,飓风是顺时针旋转,而在南半球,则是逆时针旋转。飓风通常也被称作热带风暴、旋风或是台风。

1) Which of the following type of storm most likely causes the most damage?

A: Thunderstorm      B: Tornado

C: Hurricane            D: None of the above

2) Which of the following storms is the most common?

A: Thunderstorm        B: Tornado

C: Hurricane              D: None of the above

3) Katrina is the name of a

A: Thunderstorm       B: Tornado

C: Hurricane              D: None of the above

4) Which of the following storm may cause a waterspout over the ocean?

A: Thunderstorm       B: Tornado

C: Hurricane             D: None of the above

5) Which of the following statements is false?

A: In the center of a tornado the wind speeds can reach about 300 miles per hour.

B: The weather in the eye of a hurricane is usually calm.

C: Most tornadoes in the South during the early spring or summer

D: Thunderstorms can produce lightning, thunder, rain, and snow, but not hail.

6) The eye of a hurricane can be anywhere from

A: 2 to 200 miles in diameter       B: 20 to 200 miles in diameter

C: 1 to 2 miles in diameter           D: 100 to 200 miles in diameter

         

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