双语科学站: 珊瑚礁

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Coral Reefs

珊瑚礁

Coral    pigment    algae   Fringing    atoll   conch     urchin    polyp

A coral reef is one of the most beautiful structures found in the ocean of the world. A coral reef is formed in the sea by living things. Corals are a variety of colors due to natural pigments. They can be white, red, pink, green, blue, orange and purple.

珊瑚礁是海洋世界最美丽的风景之一。珊瑚礁是由海底生物形成的。珊瑚富含天然色素,因此有着多种多样的颜色。有白色、红色、粉色、绿色、蓝色、橘色和紫色的珊瑚。

Reef-building corals are types of animals that act like plants. They stay in one place and like plants, receive some of their energy from the sun. A type of microscopic algae lives inside the coral and provides them with food and help allow the coral reefs to grow faster.

造礁珊瑚是一种类似于植物的生物。它们像植物一样待在固定的地点,通过太阳光获取能量。有一种极小的藻类生活在珊瑚内部,为它们提供食物并帮助珊瑚礁更快地成长。

The majority of coral reefs can be found in clear, tropical oceans, and form in shallow water or in water about 150 feet below the surface because of their need of light to survive. There are three types of coral reefs: fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls.

大部分珊瑚礁生存在清澈的热带海洋中,由于珊瑚礁的生存需要阳光,所以珊瑚礁形成于浅水域或者离水面下150英尺的区域。有三种类型的珊瑚礁:群礁、堡礁、环礁。

Fringing reefs are along the coastal shorelines of continents and islands. They can be found in Hawaii and the Caribbean.

群礁沿着大陆或者岛屿的边缘形成。在夏威夷和加勒比海就能看到群礁。

Barrier reefs are offshore, and are also found in the Caribbean, but are also located in the Indo-Pacific.

堡礁离岸有一定的距离。在加勒比海地区同样可以看到堡礁。在印度洋-太平洋地区也是有堡礁的

Atolls are also found in the Indo-Pacific and are a series of shallow coral islands which surround a lagoon. The largest coral reef in the world is in Australia, which is called the Great Barrier Reef. It is over 1200 miles.

环礁是围绕泻湖的一系列珊瑚岛。世界上最大的珊瑚礁位于澳大利亚,被称作为大堡礁。有1200多英里。

The habitat of a coral reef includes water that is between 68 and 82°F and located usually along the eastern shores of land. Ocean waves bring in food, nutrients, and oxygen to the reef, which is essential for the coral reef's survival. The waves also prevent sediment from settling on the reef. In addition, the calcium from the water is needed, which is usually available in shallow warm waters.

珊瑚礁的聚居地的水温通常在68华氏度到82华氏度之间,并且通常在大陆东海岸。海水为它们带来食物、养分和氧气,这对珊瑚礁的生长至关重要。海水同样能阻止沉积物粘附在珊瑚礁上。此外,海水里的钙对珊瑚礁是必需品,通常存在温暖的浅水区域满足这些条件。

The plants of the coral reefs grow through the process of #photosynthesis#  converting the sunlight into energy. Just like on dry land, the animals of the coral reefs eat the plants to get their energy, as in a food chain. Algae, seagrasses and zooxanthellae are the main types of plants in the coral reef. The plants provide the animals food and oxygen. The seagrasses, too, provide shelter for immature reef animals like conch and lobster.

珊瑚礁植物通过吸收太阳光能量进行光合作用生长。如同陆地上的动物,珊瑚礁中的动物通过进食珊瑚礁中的植物获取能量,形成了一条食物链。海藻、海草和黄藻是珊瑚礁的主要植物。植物为动物提供食物和氧气。海藻也为幼小的礁类动物,例如海螺、龙虾,提供庇护所。

了解更多#photosynthesis#》》》光合作用

Coral reefs make up one percent of the ocean floor but is home to 25% of life in the ocean. Animals either begin their life and reside in coral reefs, or the reef serves as a type of rest stop for animals as they travel through the seas. The corals themselves, made up of tiny organisms called polyps, are the most plentiful animal on the reef. They are attached to the hard reefs and live there forever. Other animals that live on the coral reef are sponges, sea urchins, octopus, snails, worms, sharks, lobster, and many more. The animals live together and work as a team to survive.

珊瑚礁占据了海洋的1%,但却栖息着25%的海洋生物。珊瑚礁是很多海洋生物的生命开端,也是众多海洋生物在旅行途中的休息站。珊瑚是由一种极小的微生物组成的。这种微生物被称为珊瑚虫,这种微生物组成珊瑚礁的动物主体。它们贴附与坚硬的珊瑚礁上,并且永久地生存在哪儿。居住在珊瑚礁上的生物还有海绵生物、海胆、章鱼、蜗牛、鲨鱼、龙虾等等。这些生物一起生存,协作觅食。

Coral reefs are helpful to the planet as well. They remove and recycle carbon dioxide from the air which can contribute to global warming. Reefs also protect the land from the impact of strong waves during harsh weather. Unfortunately, pollution, irresponsible fishing, and sewage, among others, is responsible for the destruction of many coral reefs by humans.

珊瑚礁对地球也有益。它们能够吸收和循环温室气体二氧化碳。珊瑚礁也能够保护陆地在恶劣天气时收到汹涌浪潮的冲击。不幸的是,污染,无节制的捕捞和排污系统等其他不负责任的行为已经严重破坏了珊瑚礁。

In summary, coral reefs are beautiful structures of living plants and animals located throughout the seas of the world. The are found on shorelines, off-shore, and can form islands called atolls.

本课小结:珊瑚礁是一种聚居着全世界海洋植物和动物的美丽的构造。在海岸边、离岸一定距离的地方都能找到珊瑚礁,并且,珊瑚礁还能形成小岛,被称为环礁。

1) Where do coral reefs get their energy?

A: The ocean itself    B: The ocean's surface

C: The sun               D: The land surrounding it

2) Where is the majority of coral reefs found?

A: Lakes and rivers     B: Ponds and streams

C: Tropical oceans       D: Arctic waters

3) All of the following are types of coral reefs EXCEPT:

A: Fringing reefs          B: Coastal reefs

C: Barrier reefs             D: Atolls

4) Which of the following is the location of the Great Barrier Reef?

A: Australia                  B: South America

C: North America           D: Asia

5) Which of the following are the main types of plants in the coral reef?

A: Algae                    B: Seagrasses

C: Zooxanthellae         D: All of the above

6) Which of the following is the most plentiful animal on Earth?

A: Polyps                   B: Algae

C: Urchins                  D: Sponges

         

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