双语科学站:鲸鱼

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Whales

Cetacean    pod      nostril      baleen     scrape

Whales are the largest and most powerful creatures on earth. They live in all of the oceans of the world. They are not fish. Whales are mammals. They are warm-blooded. They breathe air. They give birth to live young. Baby whales drink their mother's milk.

鲸鱼是地球上体型最大、最强大的生物。它们分布在世界的各个海洋。它们并不是鱼类,而是哺乳动物。它们是暖血动物。它们呼吸。它们生育幼子。而鲸鱼宝宝以鲸鱼妈妈的母乳为食。

Whales are called Cetaceans. Other Cetaceans include dolphins and porpoises. Whales are social creatures. They travel in groups called pods or schools. They breathe through their nostrils, called blowholes. They must surface above the water to breathe. The blowhole is on top of the whale's head. When whales breathe out, this vapor looks like a fountain. The blowhole is closed when the whale dives below the ocean. Some whales can stay under the water for up to an hour.

鲸鱼也被称作为鲸目动物。其他的鲸目动物包括海豚、鼠海豚。鲸鱼是一种群居动物。它们成群结队地在海洋穿梭,被称之为鲸群。它们通过鼻腔也就是所谓的气孔呼吸。它们必须浮到水面以上才能呼吸。它们的气孔在它们头部顶部。当鲸鱼呼气时,呼出的水汽就像一个喷泉。当鲸鱼在海底游动时,这个气孔是关闭的。有的鲸鱼能在水底待接近一个小时。

Sperm whales are the largest of the toothed whales. They have a huge square snout. These snouts contain almost a ton of oil. Early whale hunters went after the sperm whales. They live off the coast of North America and sometimes move to the polar seas.

抹香鲸是齿鲸中最大的。它们有一个巨大的方形的鼻子。这个鼻子中含有接近一吨的油。早期的捕鲸人猎捕抹香鲸。它们生活在北美洲海岸之外,有时也迁徙到极地海洋。

A whale's flippers balance and steer the creature. The two parts of its tail are called flukes. They move up and down and push the whale through the water. The mother whale is called a cow. Her baby is born under water. She pushes it up to the surface for its first breath. The baby calf can swim immediately.

鲸鱼通过鱼鳍来平衡和控制。它尾巴的两部分被称为尾鳍。通过上下摆动推动鲸鱼在水底穿梭。母鲸被称作为大型雌兽。她在水下分娩宝宝。她把宝宝推到水面上来完成鲸鱼宝宝的第一次呼吸。随后鲸鱼幼兽就立即能游动起来。

Whales with teeth are called toothed whales. Those having no teeth are called baleen whales. The baleen whale has blades of whalebone hanging down from the roof of its mouth. The whale swims with its mouth open and traps sea creatures. It closes its mouth and the blades act like a filter. Its tongue scrapes food off the filter to eat it. Baleen whales have two blowholes.

有牙齿的鲸鱼称为齿鲸。而那些没有牙齿的鲸鱼则被称为须鲸。须鲸的上颌的颚侧两部都有锯齿状的角质须。鲸鱼游动的时候张大嘴来捕食海底生物。它们合上嘴巴,它们的角质须就像一个过滤器。它们的舌头从角质须上剔取食物并吞食食物。须鲸有两个气孔。

There are more toothed whales than baleen and they are larger. Toothed whales have piercing teeth and big throats. They can swallow whole fish. Killer whales eat seals, birds and even other whales.

齿鲸比须鲸更多而且更大。齿鲸有尖利的牙齿和巨大的咽喉。它们可以吞食整条鱼。虎鲸吃海豹、鸟甚至其他的鲸鱼。

Many whales migrate to find other feeding grounds. They travel from season to season. The feeding grounds are in the colder waters. The whales then move to warmer waters to mate and have their young. They move in groups of three or more.

很多的鲸鱼迁徙来寻找觅食区。它们一年四季到处迁徙。而觅食区通常在冷洋流区域。随后鲸鱼又迁徙到暖洋流区来交配,生育。它们通常三个成群或者更多。

Whales make many different sounds. The humpback whale sings. It may emit high-pitched screams or low throbs for up to fifteen minutes. Their songs have been recorded. They seem to be able to sing six different songs. Gray whales talk in grunts, cracking sounds, and whistles. Beluga whales are called canaries because of their singing.

鲸鱼发出多种不同的声音。座头鲸还会唱歌。它可以持续15分钟发出尖叫声或低沉的颤动声。它们的歌声被记录下来。观察发现它们能唱六首不同的歌。灰鲸通过咕噜声、破碎声、口哨声交谈。白鲸因为它们的歌声被称作为“金丝雀”。

Whales are very intelligent. The U.S. Navy has trained small whales for secret work. Whales can be trained for rewards of fish and attention.

鲸鱼非常地聪明。美国海军训练小型鲸鱼来进行机密工作。可以通过鱼类和关注为奖励来训练鲸鱼。

In summary, whales are the largest creatures on earth. They are not fish. They are mammals who live in all of the oceans of the world. They are warm-blooded. They give birth to live young who drink their mother's milk. They must come to the surface to breathe.

本课小结:鲸鱼是地球上最大的生物。它们并不是鱼类。它们是生活在世界各地的海洋中的哺乳动物。它们是暖血动物。它们生育幼子,而幼鲸以母乳为食。它们浮到水面呼吸。

1) Which of the following is a characteristic of mammals?

A: The babies drink their mother's milk.        B: They breathe air.

C: They give birth to live young.                   D: All of the above.

2) Which of the following are Cetaceans?

A: Very small fish                  B: The food that whales eat

C: Large sea mammals          D: None of the above

3) Which of the following is the largest of the toothed whales?

A: Baleen whales            B: Sperm whales

C: Gray whales               D: Humpback whales

4) Which of the following types of whales can sing up to six songs?

A: Humpback                B: Gray

C: Beluga                     D: None of the above

5) Which of the following best defines migrate?

A: Eat krill                          B: Dive under the water

C: Jump out of the water     D: Travel to another area

6) Which of the following parts of the whale's body push the whale through the water?

A: Flukes                  B: Flippers

C: Blowholes             D: Fins

         

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