全球独家2014年6月15日托福大陆考全真试题还原

所属专题:出国留学  来源:杀托联盟    要点:托福真题  
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2014年6月21日托福大陆考全真试题还原

Reading

①Development of European newspaper

There has been a long history about the development of European newspaper.After the typography was invented,the whole world went into the time of mass media.The first printed newspaper was well known as the Nieuwe Tijdinghen,published in 1609 in Netherland.This was seen as the start of a new era.Since then,newspaper has made a huge progress.However,at that time,the politics was not so developed as today,so the government didn’t put tough regulation on newspapers.

After the advent of newspapers,they were all controlled by some rich or powerful people.They could decide what to be printed and what should be expressed to the public.In 1881,France published the law supporting the freedom of speech,newspaper got a rapid growth in France.The amount of publish had been five times than before and more and more people began to accept this kind of way to spread news.While the government has take involved in this business.They tried to keep the power in their hand and controlled the main newspaper in order to lead the public.They took two methods to do this thing.First,they made laws to regulate the newspaper so that they could speak on their behalf.What was more,they also sponsored some important newspapers in order that they could get exactly what were printed swiftly.All what they do had the same goal,that was to guide the people and support the government.This was the final political aim.

There were a lot of factors that contributed to the prosperity of the newspaper.Here would list the most important two parts of that.First is the globalization of politics and economics.After the revolution of industry,colonization spread all over the world rapidly.The Netherland was one of the most powerful countries to set its colony around South Asia.With the growth of colonization,newspaper was taken into all those places.This way had contributed a lot to the quickly spread of newspaper.

Another way was the evolvement of postal systems.With the general improvement of postal system day by day,the news paper had got a great evolvement.Postal system led us to the mass media and made newspaper well accepted.Especially in France,they have complicated the postal system so that this contributed a lot for the newspaper.There was a funny thing could reflect this globalization of newspaper,a person from the Netherland was reading a French newspaper which was published by England.

The spread of newspaper also introduced reading to the public.People had got the motivation of self-awareness and they tried to express themselves freely.

②The composition of atmosphere

Generally, the composition of atmosphere in early period was suitable for the advancement of higher living organism, since it provided them with sufficient energy as well as protection, contributing to their appearance and survival during the evolution of the biosystem.

In the early days, the atmosphere was filled with a large amount of carbon dioxide and methane, since the sun is a little dark at first, that is to say, it cannot produce enough heat at that time. However, the carbon dioxide and methane can let the heat stay in earth, preventing it from escaping from the earth, which can be considered as an effective way to give the living things on earth a suitable habitant with reasonable climate. Due to the enough energy and heat on earth, those living things can develop and survive during the process of natural selection.

However, with the time passing by, the bacteria produces the dioxide during the photosynthesis, leading to the accumulation of the dioxide in our planet. And at the same time, the sun became huger and huger, which brought about a lot of heat and sunlight. However, owing to the fact that carbon dioxide and methane on earth occupied declining percentage, the climate or the temperature on earth did not change with comparison of that in the early days. The climate at that time is also suitable for the living things.

Why does the accumulation of the dioxide contribute to the development some plants? For this question, there are two reasons. First, the dioxide can facilitate those plants’ metabolism, letting them storing enough nutrition in bodies and providing some water through other functions. Second, the dioxide can form the ozone layer, playing the role a proctor for plants on earth and stopping some cosmic radiation out of the earth. These two functions benefit plants a lot and finally help out earth to be filled with a variety of amazing living things, just as we see now.

With the consideration of the composition of atmosphere on Mars, though some scholars have done some many research on it and also raise and analyze numerous evidences of the existence it is unlikely that there exists some higher organism living there. If they insist on the opinion that some living things has existed on Mars, they must be the lower organism. Until now, most individuals still believe that our planet-earth is the only one for the higher organism.

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