掌握托福语法的重要性

所属专题:托福考试内容  来源:TOEFL托福备考    要点:掌握托福语法  
编辑点评: 语法不用的时候很鸡肋,但遇到托福的复杂句和长作文语法的作用就不能忽视了。在托福中,ETS重点考查的是学生的语法理解能力。下面一起来看看托福语法吧!

时态(写作常用且常错):

1.一般现在时:表示真理性,经常性,习惯性,普遍性。[在口语里常用,在叙事性文章和故事里很少用]
例句:1.The earth is smaller than the sun. [状态][真理性]
2.Tom gets up early every morning. [动作][经常性和习惯性]
3.Everybody knows him. [普遍性]

2.过去时:表示过去某一时间里发生的动作或状态。 [叙事性的文章和故事里最常用的时态]。
例句:1.Yesterday we went to the park.[动作]
2.The book was there ten minutes ago. [状态]

3.将来时:表示将来某一时间里发生的动作或状态。
例句:1.Tom will help you tomorrow. [动作]
2.We shall be here in time next time. [状态]

4.过去将来时:表示从过去某一时间看将在以后某一时间里发生的动作或状态。[注意不要跟现在联系起来]
例句:1.Ten years ago, Mary said she would finish the work in a few days. [动作]
2. Yesterday he thought you would be a good player after five years. [状态]

5.现在完成时:表示在现在之前就已经完成的动作或状态[要特别注意不包括现在]。
例句:1.We have done our homework. [动作]
2.He has been a doctor now. .[状态]

6.过去完成时: 表示在过去某时之前就已经完成的动作或状态。
例句:1.Three days ago he had already finished his homework. [动作]
2.When he was a boy, he had already been a head of the boys. [状态]

7.将来完成时:表示在将来某时之前将完成的动作或状态。
例句:1.Tomorrow morning, I will have cleaned the windows. [动作]
2.Next Sunday, he will have been a new doctor. [状态]

8.过去将来完成时:表示在过去某一时间之前本该完成的动作或状态。[一般用于虚拟语态]
例句:1.If he had worked hard enough, he would have built a new house. [动作] [实际情况是因为他不够努力,所以新房子连影子都没有]
2.If he were alive, he would have been a doctor now. .[状态][实际情况是他已经去世,所以永远成不了医生]

9.现在进行时:在现在之前开始,以后还要延续一段时间的动作。[要注意只有延续性动词可以用进行时]。
例句:Tom is reading a book.

10.过去进行时:在过去某时之前开始,以后还要延续一段时间的动作。[要注意只有延续性动词可以用进行时]。
例句:The dog was eating a bone.

11.将来进行时:在将来某时之前开始,以后还要延续一段时间的动作。[要注意只有延续性动词可以用进行时]。
例句:At ten tomorrow morning, I will be writing the letter for you.

12.过去将来进行时:从过去某时来看将再以后某时之前开始,以后还要延续一段时间的动作。[要注意只有延续性动词可以用进行时]。
例句:Jack told me that he would be working hard the next year.

13.现在完成进行时:在现在之前就已经完成并且还要延续下去的动作。[较少用]
例句:Tom has been reading this book for over ten hours.

14.过去完成进行时:在过去某时之前就已经完成并且还要延续下去的动作。{很少用}
例句:The workers had been building the railway then.

15.将来完成进行时:在将来某时之前就已经完成并且还要延续下去的动作。{很少用}
例句:They will have been making their efforts after that time.

16.过去将来完成进行时:在过去某时之前看来将来某时应该已经完成并且还要延续下去的动作。{很少用}
例句:We thought they would have been doing physical training till then.

语法(长难句必杀技):

第一 嵌套结构

所谓的嵌套结构,就是相同的两个或者三个语法内容叠加出现,让我们看起来应接不暇,打乱你正常的阅读顺序。比如:

1.Even though the fine arts in the twentieth century often treat materials in new ways, the basic difference in attitude of artists in relation to their materials in the fine arts and the applied arts remains relatively constant.

这句话前半句是状语从句,后半句为主句。前半句的内容没有什么难点,难点主要在于后半句从主语开始,主语是the basic difference 但是他后面分别加了三个后置定语,第一个in attitude of artists 第二个 in relation to their materials 第三个 in the fine arts and the applied arts 由于这三个后置定语的出现,彻底打乱了我们读句子时的连续性。本来主句应该是 the basic difference remains relatively constant. 非常清晰,结果中间加入的后置定语一个套一个,如果是按读到哪里翻译到哪里那顺序就彻底错乱了。即使你认识这句话中所有的单词,你也无法读懂这句话。

那怎么办呢?将后置定语提前,放在他修饰的名词前面去理解就可以了。很多情况下,我们只见过一个后置定语出现的句子,但是像这样,三个后置定语一个套一个的修饰情况在平时的高中英语文章中很少见到,但它却是托福阅读中考查的重点。按照我们的处理方式,这句话应该变成in the fine arts and the applied arts的in relation to their materials的in attitude of artists的the basic difference remains relatively constant. 翻译成中文就是 在纯艺术与实用艺术中相对于他们各自材料的基本态度上的差异仍然保持一致。

2.Those individuals who possess characteristics that provide them with an advantage in the struggle for existence are more likely to survive and contribute their genes to the next generation.

在这句话中,我们仍然看到了和上一句话一样的嵌套句型,所不同的是,前面那句话是后置定语嵌套,而这句话是从句嵌套加后置定语嵌套。who possess characteristics引导的从句修饰前面的主语 Those individuals ,但是在他之后that provide them with an advantage in the struggle for existence又修饰前面从句当中的characteristics. 并且在第二个嵌套的从句中我们还发现了和前面那个例子一样的后置定语的嵌套for existence 修饰前面的struggle, 而前面的in the struggle又修饰前面的advantage. 这种连续的嵌套句型会让很多同学吃不消。

处理方式依然是把这些嵌套结构放到他所修饰的内容前面去理解即可,先处理小的部分,再处理大的部分。这句话的中文翻译应该是 能提供给他们在生存竞争中具备优势的具有这样特点的那些个体们更有可能活下来并且传递自己的基因给下一代。

第二 多重逻辑关系

所谓多重逻辑关系,就是在一个句子中通过语法,表现出多于一种以上的逻辑关系。这同样是ETS在考试中最擅长使用的招数,如果同学们搞不清楚这些逻辑关系是由谁构成的,就很难正确理解这句话。看下面这个例句:

The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established.

首先,主句是前半句,后半句是由so that引导的结果状语从句。所以单从句型上就有一个因果关系了,前半句是因,后半句是果。其次,在主句中,谓语是results in,这是一个明显表示因果关系的短语,叫做导致。所以在他前面是因,后面是果。因此,主语the gradual drying of the soil是因,宾语the further loss of vegetation是果。这就是两重因果关系了,我们再来看主语的修饰语会发现他后面出现了刚才我们所说的嵌套结构caused by its diminished ability to absorb water 。 to absorb water修饰ability 而caused by its diminished ability 则修饰前方的soil 。我们刚刚讲过嵌套结构的处理方式,这里不重复了,但是我们发现在这个嵌套结构中出现了由caused所代表的第三重因果关系。Ability是因,the gradual drying of the soil是果。仅一句话,ETS就考查了三重因果关系,且分别是用分词短语做后置定语,因果逻辑词作谓语和结果状语从句三种不同的语法结构来进行考查,难度可见一斑。很多同学总抱怨说自己能看懂文章却做不对题目,其实根本原因还是在于像例句这样的句子看不清晰,知道是因果关系,却不知道谁真正导致谁,就会错题。

根据这句话,如果问是谁导致了a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established,
那么答案应该是The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation
如果问是谁导致了The gradual drying of the soil
那么答案应该是its diminished ability to absorb water
如果问是谁导致了the further loss of vegetation
那么答案应该是The gradual drying of the soil

对于多重逻辑关系,要先搞清楚每一层关系的两方面,再按照句子结构进行理解。因此,这句话中文的意思应该是 由吸收水能力减少所导致的土壤的逐渐干旱导致的结果是自然植被进一步的流失,因此土壤表面的恶性循环就此产生。

第三 插入语

所谓插入语,指的是句子中出现的不影响句子结构,对句子某一个部分进行补充说明的语法成分。

Ekman has found that the so-called Duchenne smile, which is characterized by ''crow’s feet" wrinkles around the eyes and a subtle drop in the eye cover fold so that the skin above the eye moves down slightly toward the eyeball, can lead to pleasant feelings.

插入语结构在托福阅读中起到的最大作用就是干扰你的连续阅读。在一个正常的句子中,突然插入一个短语或者从句,让我们无所适从,很多同学刚才对于前半句的理解就此消失,这就是插入语的干扰方式。对于这样的句子就删除它就好。先不要读它,因为你只要读它就会觉得句子结构很乱,越读越乱,最后就理不清了。我们要求先把他删除,这样我们可以在不受到他干扰的前提下把句子的主干先读完。读完以后我们再去理解他。比如上面这句话,主句应该是前面的Ekman has found that the so-called Duchenne smile以及句子结尾的can lead to pleasant feelings ,而两个逗号之间的插入句which is characterized by ''crow’s feet" wrinkles around the eyes and a subtle drop in the eye cover fold so that the skin above the eye moves down slightly toward the eyeball则完全是用来解释Duchenne smile的,与主句没有关系。因此,我们先删除它理解主句,这样就不会出现意思断层。其实主句表达的意思很简单,就是Ekman已经发现了所谓的D这种微笑可以产生愉悦的情感。

以上三种为托福阅读中常用的语法难点。真正的长难句中考查的语法难点多种多样,他们又会相互结合进行考查,结构上千变万化。对于这些语法难点,建议大家还是找一本高中语法书,认真的阅读例句来理解其内容真正掌握。

希望上述对你有帮助哦!掌握了语法,写作和阅读都可以提升哦!
 

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