# 浅析GMAT非形式逻辑解题方法

1、前后呼应原则

“假设”题型的答案一定是文章成立的必要条件，从形式上分为“桥梁型”和“排除削弱型”。其中的“桥梁型”是直接考察“前后呼应”的，“加强”、“削弱”等题型则是建立在“桥梁型”的基础上。

The conclusion drawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Engineering students are working less because in a booming market they are spending more and more time investigating different job opportunities.

(B) Whether or not students do the work they are assigned is a good indication of how lazy they are.

(C) Engineering students should work harder than students in less demanding fields.

(D) Ms. Dennis’ students are doing less work because Ms. Dennis is not as effective a teacher as she once was.

(E) Laziness is something most people do not outgrow.

(A) 工程系的学生工作越来越少了，因为在一个蓬勃发展的市场中他们花越来越多的时间调查各式各样的工作机会。

(B) 学生是否做指派的工作是他们多懒的一个标志。

(C) 工程系的学生应该比那些要求较低的领域中的学生更加努力工作。

(D) 丹妮丝女士的学生工作得更少因为丹妮丝女士作为老师不象以前那么有效了。

(E) 懒惰是大部分人无法戒掉的一个毛病。

The conclusion above would be more reasonably drawn if which of the following were inserted into the argument as an additional premise?

(A) Royalties from inventions are higher than royalties from educational software programs.

(B) Faculty members are more likely to produce educational software programs than inventions.

(C) Inventions bring more prestige to universities that do books and articles.

(D) In the experience of most universities, educational software programs are more marketable that are books and articles.

(E) In terms of the criteria used to award royalties, educational software programs are more nearly comparable to books and articles than to inventions.

(A) 发明的版税比教育软件的版税要高;

(B) 教员更有可能做出教育软件，而不是发明;

(C) 发明带给了出书和文章的大学更高的威望;

(D) 大部分大学的经验当中，教育软件比起书和论文更容易市场化;

(E) 根据过去给的版税标准，教育软件和书、论文的相似程度比起发明更大一些。

2、非常理原则

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Sicilian potters who lived during the reign of the ruler did not produce work of the same level of quality as did Greek potters.

(B) Sicilian clay that was used in the manufacture of pottery during the ruler’s reign bore little resemblance to Greek clay used to manufacture pottery at that time.

(C) At the time that the occupant of the tomb was alive, there were ships capable of transporting large quantities of manufactured goods between Sicily and Greece.

(D) The vase that was found at the Sicilian tomb was not placed there many generations later by descendants of the occupant of the tomb.

(E) The occupant of the tomb was not a member of the royal family to which the Sicilian ruler belonged.

(A) 生活在那位君王统治时期的西西里陶工生产的产品质量和希腊的陶工不同。

(B) 在那位君王统治时期生产陶器所使用的西西里粘土和同时期的希腊粘土不太相似。

(C) 在坟墓的主人活着的时候，有船只能够运送西西里和希腊之间的商品。

(D) 在西西里坟墓中发现的这个花瓶不是由坟墓主人的后代在隔了好几代以后放进去的。

(E) 坟墓的主人不是那位君王的王室家族的成员。

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