1. At the Shadybrook dog kennel, all the adult animals were given a new medication designed to reduce a dog’s risk of contracting a certain common infection. Several days after the medication was administered, most of the puppies of these dogs had elevated temperatures. Since raised body temperature is a side effect of this medication, the kennel owner hypothesized that the puppies’ elevated temperatures resulted from the medication’s being passed to them through their mothers’ milk.
Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the kennel owner’s hypothesis?
(A) Some puppies have been given the new medication directly but have not suffered elevated temperatures as a side effect.
(B) The new medication has been well received by dog breeders as a safe and effective way of preventing the spread of certain common canine infections.
(C) None of the four puppies in the kennel who had been bottle-fed with formula had elevated temperatures.
(D) an elevated temperature is a side effect of a number of medications for dogs other than the new medication administered at the kennel.
(E) Elevated temperatures such as those suffered by most of the puppies in the kennel rarely have serious long-term effects on a puppy’s health.
2. Which of the following most logically completes the argument? Alivia’s government has approved funds for an electricity-generation project based on the construction of a pipeline that will carry water from Lake Cylus, in the mountains, to the much smaller Lake Tifele, in a nearby valley. The amount of electricity generated will be insufficient by itself to justify the project’s cost, even if the price of imported oil-Alivia’s primary source of electricity-increases sharply. Nonetheless, the pipeline project is worth its cost, because ——
(A) the price of oil, once subject to frequent sharp increases, has fallen significantly and is now fairly stable
(B) the project could restore Lake Tifele, which is currently at risk of drying up and thus of being lost as a source of recreation income for Alivia
(C) the government of Alivia is currently on excellent terms with the governments of most of the countries from which it purchases oil
(D) it would cost less to generate electricity by moving water from Lake Cylus to lake Tifele than to do so by moving water from Lake Cylus to another valley lake
(E) Alivian officials do not expect that the amount of electricity used in Alivia will increase substantially within the next ten years
3. Amusement rides at permanent fairgrounds are dismantled once a year for safety inspections by independent consultants. Traveling fairs, which relocate each month, can slip past the net of safety inspections and escape independent inspection for several years. Therefore, the rides at traveling fairs are less safe than the rides at permanent fairs.
Which of the following, if true about traveling fairs, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) Before each relocation, the operators dismantle their rides, observing and repairing potential sources of danger, such as worn ball bearings.
(B) their managers have less capital to spend on the safety and upkeep of the rides than do managers of permanent fairs.
(C) Since they can travel to new customers, they rely less on keeping up a good reputation for safety.
(D) While they are traveling, the fairs do not receive notices of equipment recalls sent out by the manufacturers of their rides.
(E) The operators of the rides often do not pay careful attention to the instructions for operating their rides.
4. When cut, the synthetic material fiberglass, like asbestos, releases microscopic fibers into the air. It is known that people who inhale asbestos, fibers suffer impairment of lung functions. A study of 300 factory workers who regularly cut fiberglass showed that their lung capacity is, on average, only 90 percent of that of a comparable group of people who do not cut fiberglass.
The statements above, if true, most strongly support which of the following hypotheses?
(A) People who work with fiberglass are likely also to work with asbestos.
(B) Fiberglass fibers impair lung function in people who inhale them.
(C) Fiberglass releases as many fibers into the air when cut as does asbestos.
(D) Coarse fibers do not impair lung function in people who inhale them.
(E) If uncut, fiberglass poses no health risk to people who work with it.
5. Politician: Pundits claim that by voting for candidates who promise to cut taxes, people show that they want the government to provide fewer services than it has been providing. By that reasoning, however, people who drink too much alcohol at a party in the evening want a headache the next morning. Which of the following could replace the statement about people who drink too much without undermining the force of the politician's argument?
(A) People who spend more money than they can afford want the things they spend that money on.
(B) People who seek different jobs than they currently have do not want to work at all.
(C) People who buy new cars want to own cars that are under manufacturer's warranty.
(D) People who decide to stay in bed a few extra minutes on a workday morning want to have to rush to arrive at work on time.
(E) People who buy lottery tickets want the economic freedom that winning the lottery would bring.
6.Like most other coastal towns in Norway, the town of Stavanger was quiet and peaceful until the early 1960's, when it became Norway's center for offshore oil exploration. Between then and now, violent crime and vandalism in Stavanger have greatly increased. Stavanager's social problems probably resulted from the oil boom, since violent crime and vandalism have remained low in coastal towns in Norway that have had no oil boom.
Which of the following most accurately describes the method of reasoning employed in the argument?
(A) Arguing that a circumstance is not a precondition for a phenomenon on the grounds that the phenomenon sometimes occurs where the circumstance is not present
(B) Arguing that a circumstance is a cause of a phenomenon on the grounds that the phenomenon has not occurred where the circumstance is not present
(C) Arguing that a particular thing cannot have caused a phenomenon because that thing was not present before the phenomenon occurred
(D) Attempting to establish a claim by arguing that the denial of the claim is inconsistent with the observed facts
(E) Attempting to establish that certain circumstances that would have had to occur for a particular explanation to be correct could not have occurred
7. Excavations at a Mayan site have uncovered jewelry workshops located some distance from the center of the site on roads radiating outward from the center. Since the nobility lived only in the area of the center, archaeologists conclude that these workshops made jewelry, not for the nobility, but for a middle class that must have been prosperous enough to afford it.
The archaeologists' argument assumes which of the following about the artisans who worked in the workshops'
(A) They were themselves prosperous members of a middle class.
(B) They lived near their workshops.
(C) Their products were not made from the same materials as was jewelry for the nobility.
(D) They worked full-time at making jewelry and did not engage in farming
(E) They did not take the jewelry they had made in the workshops to clients who were members of the nobility.
8. Over the last 40 years there has been a great increase not only in the number of agricultural pesticides in use but also in the care and sophistication with which they are used by farmers. Nevertheless, the proportion of agricultural crops lost to certain pests worldwide has increased over the same period, even when the pests concerned have not developed resistance to existing pesticides.
Which of the following, if true. best explains how improvements in pesticide use have been accompanied by greater losses to certain pests?
(A) Some dangerous but relatively ineffective pesticides common 40 years ago are no longer in widespread use.
(B) As pesticides have become increasingly pest- specific, controlling certain pests with pesticides has turned out to cost more in many cases than the value of crop losses caused by those pests.
(C) Because today's pesticides typically have more specific application conditions than did pesticides in use 40 years ago, today's farmers observe their fields more closely than did farmers 40 years ago.
(D) Certain pest-control methods that some farmers use today do not involve the use of chemical pesticides but are just as effective in eliminating insect pests as those that do.
(E) Forty years ago, much less was known about the effects of pesticides on humans and other mammalian species than is now known.
9.Authorities in California required drivers to use their headlights on a certain road during the daytime as well as at night and found that annual accident rates on the road fell 15 percent from the previous level. They concluded that applying the daytime rule statewide would lead to a similar reduction in accidents.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the authorities' argument?
(A) Because an alternate route became available, the volume of traffic on the test road decreased during the test period.
(B) Drivers were informed of the requirement to use their headlights on the test road by means of a series of three conspicuous signs in each direction of travel.
(C) Under certain conditions, among them fog and heavy rain, most drivers in California already use their headlights during the daytime.
(D) Full-scale application of the daytime rule would cause headlight bulbs to burn out sooner than they currently do and thus to require more frequent replacement.
(E) The test road was selected to include a great variety of the sorts of road conditions that drivers in California are likely to encounter.
10. Which of the following, if true, most logically completes the passage?
Every fusion reaction releases neutrinos. To test a hypothesis about the frequency of fusion reactions in the Sun, physicists calculated the number of neutrinos the Sun would produce annually if the hypothesis were correct. From this they estimated how many neutrinos should pass through a particular location on Earth. The fact that far fewer neutrinos were counted than were predicted to pass through the location would seem to prove that the hypothesis is wrong, except that------.
(A) the physicists, using a different method for estimating how many neutrinos should reach the location, confirmed their original estimate
(B) there are several competing hypotheses about the frequency of solar fusion reactions
(C) there is not enough energy in the Sun to destroy a neutrino once it is released
(D) the method used to count neutrinos detects no more than approximately ten percent of the neutrinos that pass through
(E) neutrinos released in the fusion reactions of other stars also reach the Earth
11.An economist concluded that Kregg Company deliberately discriminated against people with a history of union affiliation in hiring workers for its new plant. The economist's evidence is that, of the 1,500 people hired to work at the new plant, only 100 had ever belonged to a labor union, whereas in Kregg Company's older plants, a much higher proportion of workers have a history of union affiliation.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the economist's argument depends?
(A) None of the people with a history of union affiliation who were hired to work at the new plant were union organizers.
(B) Applicants for jobs at the new plant were not asked by Kregg's recruiters whether they had ever belonged to a labor union.
(C) In the plants of some of Kregg's competitors, the workforce consists predominantly of union members.
(D) The company believes that the cost of running the new plant will be lower if labor unions are not represented in the workforce.
(E) The pool of potential candidates for jobs at the new plant included some people, in addition to those Kregg hired, with a history of union affiliation.
12. Hastings’ contracture is a disorder of the connective tissue in one or both hands, most commonly causing loss of mobility. A survey of thousands of medical-insurance claims found that over 30 percent of people who had one hand operated on for Hastings' contracture underwent surgery a second time for this disorder within three years. Clearly, therefore, a single surgical treatment of Hastings' contracture is often ineffective at providing long-term correction of the disorder.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?
(A) The medical-insurance claims did not specie whether the surgery was on the patient's right or left hand.
(B) The surgical techniques used to treat Hastings' contracture are identical to those used successfully to treat certain work-related injuries to the hand.
(C) A separate survey found that 90 percent of patients operated on for Hastings' contracture report increased hand mobility within one month after the surgery.
(D) All of the patients in the survey were required by their insurance companies to seek a second opinion from a qualified surgeon before undergoing the operation.
(E) Many people who have Hastings' contracture choose to tolerate its effects rather than undergo the risks of surgery.
13.The most widely used therapy for a certain type of ulcer completely heals such ulcers in 44 percent of patients within six months. In a six-month trial of a new therapy for this type of ulcer. 80 percent of ulcers treated achieved significant healing and 61 percent were completely heated. Since the trial treated only ulcers of this type that were worse than average, the new therapy clearly promotes healing more effectively than the most widely used therapy.
The answer to which of the following would be most useful in evaluating the argument given?
(A) What differences are there, if any, in the ways that the two therapies are administered?
(B) Is there any significant difference between the costs associated with the two therapies?
(C) What percentage of people with ulcers of this type who were treated with the most widely used therapy for six months experienced significant healing?
(D) How quickly do ulcers of this type, if left untreated, become significantly worse.
(E) What percentage of patients involved in the six-month trial of the new therapy were disappointed at the rate of healing were experiencing?
14.A society can achieve a fair distribution of resources only under conditions of economic growth. There can be no economic growth unless the society guarantees equality of economic opportunity to all of its citizens. Equality of economic opportunity cannot be guaranteed unless a society's government actively works to bring it about.
If the statements given are true, it can be properly concluded from them that
(A) no government can achieve a fair distribution of resources under conditions of economic growth
(B) all societies that guarantee equality of economic opportunity to all of their members are societies that distribute resources fairly
(C) a society can achieve a fair distribution of resources only if its government actively works to bring about equality of economic opportunity
(D) there ran be no economic growth in a society unless that society guarantees a fair distribution of resources
(E) some societies that experience economic growth fail to guarantee equality of opportunity to all of their citizens
15.High Towers, a company that occupies several office buildings, is considering installing new energy-efficient lightbulbs in its buildings. The new bulbs require less than half the electricity consumed by the conventional bulbs currently used to produce the same amount of light. The new bulbs also last considerably longer. It follows that by replacing old bulbs as they bum out with the new kind of bulb, High Towers would significantly reduce its overall lighting costs. Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument given?
(A) If the new bulbs are widely adopted, as seems likely, they will be produced in large enough quantities to be offered at prices comparable to those of conventional bulbs.
(B) The utility that supplies High Towers with electricity offers discount rates to its largest customers.
(C) High Towers has recently signed a contract to occupy an additional small office building.
(D) High Towers has begun a campaign to encourage its employees to turn off lights whenever they leave a room.
(E) The company that manufactures the new bulbs has been granted a patent on the innovative technology used in the bulbs and thus has exclusive rights to manufacture them.