The transplantation of organs from one individual to another normally involves two major problems: (1) organ rejection is likely unless the transplantation antigens (a usually protein or carbohydrate substance (as a toxin or enzyme) capable of stimulating an immune response) of both individuals are nearly identical, and (2) the introduction of any unmatched transplantation antigens induces the development by the recipient of donor-specific lymphocytes that will produce violent rejection of further transplantations from that donor. However, we have found that among many strains of rats these “normal” rules of transplantation are not obeyed by liver transplants. Not only are liver transplants never rejected, but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organs, such as skin, from that donor are accepted permanently. Our hypothesis is that (1) many strains of rats simply cannot mount a sufficiently vigorous destructive immune-response (using lymphocytes) to outstrip the liver’s relatively great capacity to protect itself from immune-response damage and that (2) the systemic unresponsiveness observed is due to concentration of the recipient’s donor-specific lymphocytes at the site of the liver transplant.
17. The primary purpose of the passage is to treat the accepted generalizations about organ transplantation in which of the following ways?
(A) Explicate their main features
(B) Suggest an alternative to them
(C) Examine their virtues and limitations
(D) Criticize the major evidence used to support them
(E) Present findings that qualify them
18. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that an important difference among strains of rats is the
(A) size of their livers
(B) constitution of their skin
(C) strength of their immune-response reactions
(D) sensitivity of their antigens
(E) adaptability of their lymphocytes
19. According to the hypothesis of the author, after a successful liver transplant, the reason that rats do not reject further transplants of other organs from the same donor is that the
(A) transplantation antigens of the donor and the recipient become matched
(B) lymphocytes of the recipient are weakened by the activity of the transplanted liver
(C) subsequently transplanted organ is able to repair the damage caused by the recipient’s immune-response reaction
(D) transplanted liver continues to be the primary locus for the recipient’s immune-response reaction
(E) recipient is unable to manufacture the lymphocytes necessary for the immune-response reaction
20. Which of the following new findings about strains of rats that do not normally reject liver transplants, if true, would support the authors’ hypothesis?
I. Stomach transplants are accepted by the recipients in all cases.
II. Increasing the strength of the recipient’s immune-response reaction can induce liver-transplant rejection.
III. Organs from any other donor can be transplanted without rejection after liver transplantation.
IV. Preventing lymphocytes from being concentrated at the liver transplant produces acceptance of skin transplants.
(A) II only
(B) I and III only
(C) II and IV only
(D) I, II, and III only
(E) I, III, and IV only
Practically speaking, the artistic maturing of the cinema was the single-handed achievement of David W. Griffith (1875-1948). Before Griffith, photography in dramatic films consisted of little more than (little more than: 和...无差别[一样]) placing the actors before a stationary camera and showing them in full length as they would have appeared on stage. From the beginning of his career as a director, however, Griffith, because of his love of Victorian painting, employed composition. He conceived of the camera image as having a foreground and a rear ground, as well as the middle distance preferred by most directors. By 1910 he was using close-ups to reveal significant details of the scene or of the acting and extreme long shots to achieve a sense of spectacle and distance. His appreciation of the camera’s possibilities produced novel dramatic effects. By splitting an event into fragments and recording each from the most suitable camera position, he could significantly vary the emphasis from camera shot to camera shot.
Griffith also achieved dramatic effects by means of creative editing. By juxtaposing images and varying the speed and rhythm of their presentation, he could control the dramatic intensity of the events as the story progressed. Despite the reluctance of his producers, who feared that the public would not be able to follow a plot that was made up of such juxtaposed images, Griffith persisted, and experimented as well with other elements of cinematic syntax that have become standard ever since (ever since: adv.从那时到现在). These included the flashback, permitting broad psychological and emotional exploration as well as narrative that was not chronological, and the crosscut between two parallel actions to heighten suspense and excitement. In thus exploiting fully the possibilities of editing, Griffith transposed devices of the Victorian novel to film and gave film mastery of time as well as space.
Besides developing the cinema’s language, Griffith immensely broadened its range and treatment of subjects. His early output was remarkably eclectic: it included not only the standard comedies, melodramas, westerns, and thrillers, but also such novelties as adaptations from Browning and Tennyson, and treatments of social issues. As his successes mounted, his ambitions grew, and with them the whole of American cinema. When he remade Enoch Arden in 1911, he insisted that a subject of such importance could not be treated in the then conventional length of one reel. Griffith’s introduction of the American-made multireel picture began an immense revolution. Two years later, Judith of Bethulia, an elaborate historicophilosophical spectacle, reached the unprecedented length of four reels, or one hour’s running time (running time: (程序)执行时间, 运行时间). From our contemporary viewpoint, the pretensions of this film may seem a trifle ludicrous, but at the time it provoked endless debate and discussion and gave a new intellectual respectability to the cinema.
21. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) discuss the importance of Griffith to the development of the cinema
(B) describe the impact on cinema of the flashback and other editing innovations
(C) deplore the state of American cinema before the advent of Griffith
(D) analyze the changes in the cinema wrought by the introduction of the multireel film
(E) document Griffith’s impact on the choice of subject matter in American films
22. The author suggests that Griffith’s film innovations had a direct effect on all of the following EXCEPT:
(A) film editing
(B) camera work
(C) scene composing
(D) sound editing
23. It can be inferred from the passage that before 1910 the normal running time of a film was
(A) 15 minutes or less
(B) between 15 and 30 minutes
(C) between 30 and 45 minutes
(D) between 45 minutes and 1 hour
(E) 1 hour or more
24. The author asserts that Griffith introduced all of the following into American cinema EXCEPT:
(A) consideration of social issues
(B) adaptations from Tennyson
(C) the flashback and other editing techniques
(D) photographic approaches inspired by Victorian painting
(E) dramatic plots suggested by Victorian theater
25. The author suggests that Griffith’s contributions to the cinema had which of the following results?
I. Literary works, especially Victorian novels, became popular sources for film subjects.
II. Audience appreciation of other film directors’ experimentations with cinematic syntax was increased.
III. Many of the artistic limitations thought to be inherent in filmmaking were shown to be really nonexistent.
(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
26. It can be inferred from the passage that Griffith would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?
(A) The good director will attempt to explore new ideas as quickly as possible.
(B) The most important element contributing to a film’s success is the ability of the actors.
(C) The camera must be considered an integral and active element in the creation of a film.
(D) The cinema should emphasize serious and sober examinations of fundamental human problems.
(E) The proper composition of scenes in a film is more important than the details of their editing.
27. The author’s attitude toward photography in the cinema before Griffith can best be described as