GRE阅读练习每日一篇(四十七)

所属专题:GRE阅读  来源:互联网    要点:GRE考试  
编辑点评: GRE阅读的方法相信大家已经积累了很多了,本文就为大家提供一些GRE阅读的材料,大家来练一练,把平时学到的东西运用到实际中,也多多积累词汇和句子,提高自己的阅读能力。

每天做一些标准的GRE阅读练习,有助于大家在GRE考试的复习过程中不断地进行练习和总结。希望大家在进行GRE阅读练习时,充分运用平时所积累的知识,这样才能有效果。

Classical physics defines the vacuum as a state of absence: a vacuum is said to exist in a region of space if there is nothing in it. In the quantum field theories that describe the physics of elementary particles, the vacuum becomes somewhat more complicated. Even in empty space, particles can appear spontaneously as a result of fluctuations of the vacuum. For example, an electron and a positron, or antielectron, can be created out of the void. Particles created in this way have only a fleeting existence; they are annihilated almost as soon as they appear, and their presence can never be detected directly. They are called virtual particles in order to distinguish them from real particles, whose lifetimes are not constrained in the same way, and which can be detected. Thus it is still possible to define that vacuum as a space that has no real particles in it.

One might expect that the vacuum would always be the state of lowest possible energy for a given region of space. If an area is initially empty and a real particle is put into it, the total energy, it seems, should be raised by at least the energy equivalent of the mass of the added particle. A surprising result of some recent theoretical investigations is that this assumption is not invariably true. There are conditions under which the introduction of a real particle of finite mass into an empty region of space can reduce the total energy. If the reduction in energy is great enough, an electron and a positron will be spontaneously created. Under these conditions the electron and positron are not a result of vacuum fluctuations but are real particles, which exist indefinitely and can be detected. In other words, under these conditions the vacuum is an unstable state and can decay into a state of lower energy; i.e., one in which real particles are created.

The essential condition for the decay of the vacuum is the presence of an intense electric field. As a result of the decay of the vacuum, the space permeated by such a field can be said to acquire an electric charge, and it can be called a charged vacuum. The particles that materialize in the space make the charge manifest. An electric field of sufficient intensity to create a charged vacuum is likely to be found in only one place: in the immediate vicinity of a superheavy atomic nucleus, one with about twice as many protons as the heaviest natural nuclei known. A nucleus that large cannot be stable, but it might be possible to assemble one next to a vacuum for long enough to observe the decay of the vacuum. Experiments attempting to achieve this are now under way (under way: adv.进行中, 在行进).

17. Which of the following titles best describes the passage as a whole?

(A) The Vacuum: Its Fluctuations and Decay

(B) The Vacuum: Its Creation and Instability

(C) The Vacuum: A State of Absence

(D) Particles That Materialize in the Vacuum

(E) Classical Physics and the Vacuum

18. According to the passage, the assumption that the introduction of a real particle into a vacuum raises the total energy of that region of space has been cast into doubt by which of the following?

(A) Findings from laboratory experiments

(B) Findings from observational field experiments

(C) Accidental observations made during other experiments

(D) Discovery of several erroneous propositions in accepted theories

(E) Predictions based on theoretical work

19. It can be inferred from the passage that scientists are currently making efforts to observe which of the following events?

(A) The decay of a vacuum in the presence of virtual particles

(B) The decay of a vacuum next to a superheavy atomic nucleus

(C) The creation of a superheavy atomic nucleus next to an intense electric field

(D) The creation of a virtual electron and a virtual positron as a result of fluctuations of a vacuum

(E) The creation of a charged vacuum in which only real electrons can be created in the vacuum’s region of space

20. Physicists’ recent investigations of the decay of the vacuum, as described in the passage, most closely resemble which of the following hypothetical events in other disciplines?

(A) On the basis of data gathered in a carefully controlled laboratory experiment, a chemist predicts and then demonstrates the physical properties of a newly synthesized polymer.

(B) On the basis of manipulations of macroeconomic theory, an economist predicts that, contrary to accepted economic theory, inflation and unemployment will both decline under conditions of rapid economic growth.

(C) On the basis of a rereading of the texts of Jane Austen’s novels, a literary critic suggests that, contrary to accepted literary interpretations. Austen’s plots were actually metaphors for political events in early nineteenth-century England.

(D) On the basis of data gathered in carefully planned observations of several species of birds, a biologist proposes a modification in the accepted theory of interspecies competition.

(E) On the basis of a study of observations incidentally recorded in ethnographers’ descriptions of non-Western societies, an anthropologist proposes a new theory of kinship relations.

21. According to the passage, the author considers the reduction of energy in an empty region of space to which a real particle has been added to be

(A) a well-known process

(B) a frequent occurrence

(C) a fleeting aberration

(D) an unimportant event

(E) an unexpected outcome

22. According to the passage, virtual particles differ from real particles in which of the following ways?

I. Virtual particles have extremely short lifetimes.

II. Virtual particles are created in an intense electric field.

III. Virtual particles cannot be detected directly.

(A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and II only

(E) I and III only

23. The author’s assertions concerning the conditions that lead to the decay of the vacuum would be most weakened if which of the following occurred?

(A) Scientists created an electric field next to a vacuum, but found that the electric field was not intense enough to create a charged vacuum.

(B) Scientists assembled a superheavy atomic nucleus next to a vacuum, but found that no virtual particles were created in the vacuum’s region of space.

(C) Scientists assembled a superheavy atomic nucleus next to a vacuum, but found that they could not then detect any real particles in the vacuum’s region of space.

(D) Scientists introduced a virtual electron and a virtual positron into a vacuum’s region of space, but found that the vacuum did not then fluctuate.

(E) Scientists introduced a real electron and a real positron into a vacuum’s region of space, but found that the total energy of the space increased by the energy equivalent of the mass of the particles.

Simone de Beauvoir’s work greatly influenced Betty Friedan’s—Indeed, made it possible. Why, then, was it Friedan who became the prophet of women’s emancipation in the United States? Political conditions, as well as a certain anti-intellectual bias, prepared Americans and the American media to better receive Friedan’s deradicalized and highly pragmatic The Feminine Mystique, published in 1963, than Beauvoir’s theoretical reading of women’s situation in The Second Sex. In 1953 when The Second Sex first appeared in translation in the United States, the country had entered the silent, fearful fortress of the anticommunist McCarthy years (1950-1954), and Beauvoir was suspected of Marxist sympathies. Even The Nation, a generally liberal magazine, warned its readers against “certain political leanings” of the author. Open acknowledgement of the existence of women’s oppression was too radical for the United States in the fifties, and Beauvoir’s conclusion, that change in women’s economic condition, though insufficient by itself, “remains the basic factor” in improving women’s situation, was particularly unacceptable.

24. According to the passage, one difference between The Feminine Mystique and The Second Sex is that Friedan’s book

(A) rejects the idea that women are oppressed

(B) provides a primarily theoretical analysis of women’s lives

(C) does not reflect the political beliefs of its author

(D) suggests that women’s economic condition has no impact on their status

(E) concentrates on the practical aspects of the questions of women’s emancipation

25. The author quotes from The Nation most probably in order to

(A) modify an earlier assertion

(B) point out a possible exception to her argument

(C) illustrate her central point

(D) clarify the meaning of a term

(E) cite an expert opinion

26. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is not a factor in the explanation of why The Feminine Mystique was received more positively in the United States than was The Second Sex?

(A) By 1963 political conditions in the United States had changed.

(B) Friedan’s book was less intellectual and abstract than Beauvoir’s.

(C) Readers did not recognize the powerful influence of Beauvoir’s book on Friedan’s ideas.

(D) Friedan’s approach to the issue of women’s emancipation was less radical than Beauvoir’s.

(E) American readers were more willing to consider the problem of the oppression of women in the sixties than they had been in the fifties.

27. According to the passage, Beauvoir’s book asserted that the status of women

(A) is the outcome of political oppression

(B) is inherently tied to their economic condition

(C) can be best improved under a communist government

(D) is a theoretical, rather than a pragmatic, issue

(E) is a critical area of discussion in Marxist economic theory

答案:17-27:AEBBEECECCB

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