所属专题:GRE阅读  来源:互联网    要点:GRE考试  
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(This passage is from a book published in 1975.)

That Louise Nevelson is believed by many critics to be the greatest twentieth-century sculptor is all the more remarkable because the greatest resistance to women artists has been, until recently, in the field of sculpture. Since Neolithic times, sculpture has been considered the prerogative of men, partly, perhaps, for purely physical reasons: it was erroneously assumed that women were not suited for the hard manual labor required in sculpting stone, carving wood, or working in metal. It has been only during the twentieth century that women sculptors have been recognized as major artists, and it has been in the United States, especially since the decades of the fifties and sixties, that women sculptors have shown the greatest originality and creative power. Their rise to prominence parallels the development of sculpture itself in the United States: while there had been a few talented sculptors in the United States before the 1940’s, it was only after 1945—when New York was rapidly becoming the art capital of the world—that major sculpture was produced in the United States. Some of the best was the work of women.

By far the most outstanding of these women is Louise Nevelson, who in the eyes of (in the eyes of: adv.在...心目中) many critics is the most original female artist alive today. One famous and influential critic, Hilton Kramer, said of her work, “For myself (for oneself: 为自己; 代表自己; 独力地; 亲自地), I think Ms. Nevelson succeeds where the painters often fail.”

Her works have been compared to the Cubist constructions of Picasso, the Surrealistic objects of Miro, and the Merzbau of Schwitters. Nevelson would be the first to admit that she has been influenced by all of these, as well as by African sculpture, and by Native American and pre-Columbian art, but she has absorbed all these influences and still created a distinctive art that expresses the urban landscape and the aesthetic sensibility of the twentieth century. Nevelson says, “I have always wanted to show the world that art is everywhere, except that it has to pass through (pass through: v.经过, 通过) a creative mind.”

Using mostly discarded wooden objects like packing crates, broken pieces of furniture, and abandoned architectural ornaments, all of which she has hoarded for years (for years: 多年以来, 好多年), she assembles architectural constructions of great beauty and power. Creating very freely with no sketches, she glues and nails objects together, paints them black, or more rarely white or gold, and places them in boxes. These assemblages, walls, even entire environments create a mysterious, almost awe-inspiring atmosphere. Although she has denied any symbolic or religious intent in her works, their three-dimensional grandeur and even their titles, such as Sky Cathedral and Night Cathedral, suggest such connotations. In some ways (in some ways: 在某些方面), her most ambitious works are closer to architecture than to traditional sculpture, but then neither Louise Nevelson nor her art fits into (fit into: v.适合) any neat category.

17. The passage focuses primarily on which of the following?

(A) A general tendency in twentieth-century art

(B) The work of a particular artist

(C) The artistic influences on women sculptors

(D) Critical responses to twentieth-century sculpture

(E) Materials used by twentieth-century sculptors

18. Which of the following statements is supported by information given in the passage?

(A) Since 1945 women sculptors in the United States have produced more sculpture than have men sculptors.

(B) Since 1950 sculpture produced in the United States has been the most original and creative sculpture produced anywhere.

(C) From 1900 to 1950 women sculptors in Europe enjoyed more recognition for their work than did women sculptors in the United States.

(D) Prior to 1945 there were many women sculptors whose work was ignored by critics.

(E) Prior to 1945 there was little major sculpture produced by men or women sculptors working in the United States.

19. The author quotes Hilton Kramer in lines 25-27 most probably in order to illustrate which of the following?

(A) The realism of Nevelson’s work

(B) The unique qualities of Nevelson’s style

(C) The extent of critical approval of Nevelson’s work

(D) A distinction between sculpture and painting

(E) A reason for the prominence of women sculptors since the 1950’s

20. Which of the following is one way in which Nevelson’s art illustrates her theory as it is expressed in lines 36-38?

(A) She sculpts in wood rather than in metal or stone.

(B) She paints her sculptures and frames them in boxes.

(C) She makes no preliminary sketches but rather allows the sculpture to develop as she works.

(D) She puts together pieces of ordinary objects once used for different purposes to make her sculptures.

(E) She does not deliberately attempt to convey symbolic or religious meanings through her sculpture.

21. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which of the following about Nevelson’s sculptures?

(A) They suggest religious and symbolic meanings.

(B) They do not have qualities characteristic of sculpture.

(C) They are mysterious and awe-inspiring, but not beautiful.

(D) They are uniquely American in style and sensibility.

(E) They show the influence of twentieth-century architecture.

22. The author regards Nevelson’s stature in the art world as “remarkable” (line 3) in part because of which of the following?

(A) Her work is currently overrated.

(B) Women sculptors have found it especially difficult to be accepted and recognized as major artists.

(C) Nevelson’s sculptures are difficult to understand.

(D) Many art critics have favored painting over sculpture in writing about developments in the art world.

(E) Few of the artists prominent in the twentieth century have been sculptors.

23. Which of the following statements about Nevelson’s sculptures can be inferred from the passage?

(A) They are meant for display outdoors.

(B) They are often painted in several colors.

(C) They are sometimes very large.

(D) They are hand carved by Nevelson.

(E) They are built around a central wooden object.

Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow lava (pillow lava: 枕状熔岩). This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water. While the term “pillow lava” suggests a definite shape, in fact geologists disagree. Some geologists argue that pillow lava is characterized by discrete, ellipsoidal masses. Others describe pillow lava as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings (OUTCROP (outcrop: n.露出地面的岩层)). Virtually any cross section (cross section: n.横截面) cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would give the appearance of a pile of discrete ellipsoidal masses. Adequate three-dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin. Indeed, the term “pillow,” itself suggestive of discrete masses, is probably a misnomer.

24. Which of the following is a fact presented in the passage?

(A) The shape of the connections between the separate, sacklike masses in pillow lava is unknown.

(B) More accurate cross sections of pillow lava would reveal the mode of origin.

(C) Water or ice is necessary for the formation of pillow lava.

(D) No three-dimensional examples of intact pillows currently exist.

(E) The origin of pillow lava is not yet known.

25. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

(A) analyzing the source of a scientific controversy

(B) criticizing some geologists’ methodology

(C) pointing out the flaws in a geological study

(D) proposing a new theory to explain existing scientific evidence

(E) describing a physical phenomenon

26. The author of the passage would most probably agree that the geologists mentioned in line 6 (“Some geologists”) have made which of the following errors in reasoning?

I. Generalized unjustifiably from available evidence.

II. Deliberately ignored existing counterevidence.

III. Repeatedly failed to take new evidence into account.

(A) I only

(B) II only

(C) III only

(D) I and II only

(E) II and III only

27. The author implies that the “controversy” (line 9) might be resolved if

(A) geologists did not persist in using the term “pillow”

(B) geologists did not rely on potentially misleading information

(C) geologists were more willing to confer directly with one another

(D) two-dimensional cross sections of eroded pillows were available

(E) existing pillows in land outcroppings were not so badly eroded