GRE阅读练习每日一篇(三十九)

所属专题:GRE阅读  来源:互联网    要点:GRE考试  
编辑点评: GRE阅读的方法相信大家已经积累了很多了,本文就为大家提供一些GRE阅读的材料,大家来练一练,把平时学到的东西运用到实际中,也多多积累词汇和句子,提高自己的阅读能力。

每天做一些标准的GRE阅读练习,有助于大家在GRE考试的复习过程中不断地进行练习和总结。希望大家在进行GRE阅读练习时,充分运用平时所积累的知识,这样才能有效果。

Ragtime is a musical form that synthesizes folk melodies and musical techniques into a brief quadrille-like structure, designed to be played—exactly as written—on the piano. A strong analogy exists between European composers like Ralph Vaughan Williams, Edvard Grieg, and Anton Dvorak who combined folk tunes and their own original materials in larger compositions and the pioneer ragtime composers in the United States. Composers like Scott Joplin and James Scott were in a sense collectors or musicologists, collecting dance and folk music in Black communities and consciously shaping it into brief suites or anthologies called piano rags.

It has sometimes been charged that ragtime is mechanical. For instance, Wilfred Mellers comments, “rags were transferred to the pianola roll and, even if not played by a machine, should be played like a machine, with meticulous precision.” However, there is no reason to assume that ragtime is inherently mechanical simply because commercial manufacturers applied a mechanical recording method to ragtime, the only way to record pianos at that date. Ragtime’s is not a mechanical precision, and it is not precision limited to the style of performance. It arises from ragtime’s following a well-defined form and obeying simple rules within that form.

The classic formula for the piano rag disposes three to five themes in sixteen-bar strains, often organized with repeats. The rag opens with a bright, memorable strain or theme, followed by a similar theme, leading to a trio of marked lyrical character, with the structure concluded by a lyrical strain that parallels the rhythmic developments of the earlier themes. The aim of the structure is to rise from one theme to another in a stair-step manner, ending on a note of triumph or exhilaration. Typically, each strain is divided into two 8-bar segments that are essentially alike, so the rhythmic-melodic unit of ragtime is only eight bars of 2/4 measure. Therefore, themes must be brief with clear, sharp melodic figures. Not concerned with development of musical themes, the ragtime composer instead sets a theme down intact, in finished form, and links it to various related themes. Tension in ragtime compositions arises from a polarity between two basic ingredients: a continuous bass—called by jazz musicians a boom-chick bass—in the pianist’s left hand, and its melodic, syncopated counterpart in the right hand.

Ragtime remains distinct from jazz both as an instrumental style and as a genre. Ragtime style stresses a pattern of repeated rhythms, not the constant inventions and variations of jazz. As a genre, ragtime requires strict attention to structure, not inventiveness or virtuosity. It exists as a tradition, a set of conventions, a body of written scores, separate from the individual players associated with it. In this sense ragtime is more akin to folk music of the nineteenth century than to jazz.

17. Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the passage?

(A) To contrast ragtime music and jazz

(B) To acknowledge and counter significant adverse criticisms of ragtime music

(C) To define ragtime music as an art form and describe its structural characteristics

(D) To review the history of ragtime music and analyze ragtime’s effect on listeners

(E) To explore the similarities between ragtime music and certain European musical compositions

18. According to the passage, each of the following is a characteristic of ragtime compositions that follow the classic ragtime formula EXCEPT:

(A) syncopation

(B) well-defined melodic figures

(C) rising rhythmic-melodic intensity

(D) full development of musical themes

(E) a bass line distinct from the melodic line

19. According to the passage, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Anton Dvorak, and Scott Joplin are similar in that they all

(A) conducted research into musicological history

(B) wrote original compositions based on folk tunes

(C) collected and recorded abbreviated piano suites

(D) created intricate sonata-like musical structures

(E) explored the relations between Black music and continental folk music

20. The author rejects the argument that ragtime is a mechanical music because that argument

(A) overlooks the precision required of the ragtime player

(B) does not accurately describe the sound of ragtime pianola music

(C) confuses the means of recording and the essential character of the music

(D) exaggerates the influence of the performance style of professional ragtime players on the reputation of the genre

(E) improperly identifies commercial ragtime music with the subtler classic ragtime style

21. It can be inferred that the author of the passage believes that the most important feature of ragtime music is its

(A) commercial success

(B) formal structure

(C) emotional range

(D) improvisational opportunities

(E) role as a forerunner of jazz

22. It can be inferred from the passage that the essential nature of ragtime has been obscured by commentaries based on

(A) the way ragtime music was first recorded

(B) interpretations of ragtime by jazz musicians

(C) the dance fashions that were contemporary with ragtime

(D) early reviewers’ accounts of characteristic structure

(E) the musical sources used by Scott Joplin and James Scott

23. Which of the following is most nearly analogous in source and artistic character to a ragtime composition as described in the passage?

(A) Symphonic music derived from complex jazz motifs

(B) An experimental novel based on well-known cartoon characters

(C) A dramatic production in which actors invent scenes and improvise lines

(D) A ballet whose disciplined choreography is based on folk-dance steps

(E) A painting whose abstract shapes evoke familiar objects in a natural landscape

Echolocating bats emit sounds in patterns—characteristic of each species—that contain both frequency-modulated (FM) and constant-frequency (CF) signals. The broadband FM signals and the narrowband CF signals travel out to a target, reflect from it, and return to the hunting bat. In this process of transmission and reflection, the sounds are changed, and the changes in the echoes enable the bat to perceive features of the target.

The FM signals report information about target characteristics that modify the timing and the fine frequency structure, or spectrum, of echoes—for example, the target’s size, shape, texture, surface structure, and direction in space. Because of their narrow bandwidth, CF signals portray only the target’s presence and, in the case of some bat species, its motion relative to the bat’s. Responding to changes in the CF echo’s frequency, bats of some species correct in flight for the direction and velocity of their moving prey.

24. According to the passage, the information provided to the bat by CF echoes differs from that provided by FM echoes in which of the following ways?

(A) Only CF echoes alert the bat to moving targets.

(B) Only CF echoes identify the range of widely spaced targets.

(C) Only CF echoes report the target’s presence to the bat.

(D) In some species, CF echoes enable the bat to judge whether it is closing in on its target.

(E) In some species, CF echoes enable the bat to discriminate the size of its target and the direction in which the target is moving.

25. According to the passage, the configuration of the target is reported to the echolocating bat by changes in the

(A) echo spectrum of CF signals

(B) echo spectrum of FM signals

(C) direction and velocity of the FM echoes

(D) delay between transmission and reflection of the CF signals

(E) relative frequencies of the FM and the CF echoes

26. The author presents the information concerning bat sonar in a manner that could be best described as

(A) argumentative

(B) commendatory

(C) critical

(D) disbelieving

(E) objective

27. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

(A) A fact is stated, a process is outlined, and specific details of the process are described.

(B) A fact is stated, and examples suggesting that a distinction needs correction are considered.

(C) A fact is stated, a theory is presented to explain that fact, and additional facts are introduced to validate the theory.

(D) A fact is stated, and two theories are compared in light of their explanations of this fact.

(E) A fact is stated, a process is described, and examples of still another process are illustrated in detail.

答案:17-27:CDBDBADDBEA

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