GRE阅读练习每日一篇(三十四)

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编辑点评: GRE阅读的方法相信大家已经积累了很多了,本文就为大家提供一些GRE阅读的材料,大家来练一练,把平时学到的东西运用到实际中,也多多积累词汇和句子,提高自己的阅读能力。

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Jean Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as secular, frame of reference. The appropriateness of such an approach may seem self-evident for a tradition commencing with spirituals and owing its early forms, rhythms, vocabulary, and evangelical fervor to Wesleyan hymnals. But before Wagner a secular outlook that analyzed Black poetry solely within the context of political and social protest was dominant in the field.

It is Wagner who first demonstrated the essential fusion of racial and religious feeling in Afro-American poetry. The two, he argued, form a symbiotic union in which religious feelings are often applied to racial issues and racial problems are often projected onto a metaphysical plane. Wagner found this most eloquently illustrated in the Black spiritual, where the desire for freedom in this world and the hope for salvation in the next are inextricably intertwined.

17. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) contrast the theories of Jean Wagner with those of other contemporary critics

(B) document the influence of Jean Wagner on the development of Afro-American poetry

(C) explain the relevance of Jean Wagner’s work to the study of Afro-American religion

(D) indicate the importance of Jean Wagner’s analysis of Afro-American poetry

(E) present the contributions of Jean Wagner to the study of Black spirituals

18. All of the following aspects of Afro-American poetry are referred to in the passage as having been influenced by Wesleyan hymnals EXCEPT:

(A) subject matter

(B) word choice

(C) rhythm

(D) structure

(E) tone

19. It can be inferred from the passage that, before Wagner, most students of Afro-American poetry did which of the following?

(A) Contributed appreciably to the transfer of political protest from Afro-American poetry to direct political action.

(B) Ignored at least some of the historical roots of Afro-American poetry.

(C) Analyzed fully the aspects of social protest to be found in such traditional forms of Afro-American poetry as the Black spiritual.

(D) Regarded as unimportant the development of fervent emotionalism in a portion of Afro-American poetry.

(E) Concentrated on the complex relations between the technical elements in Afro-American poetry and its political content.

Two relatively recent independent developments stand behind (stand behind: 后援, 做后盾) the current major research effort on nitrogen fixation, the process by which bacteria symbiotically render leguminous plants independent of nitrogen fertilizer. The one development has been the rapid, sustained increase in the price of nitrogen fertilizer (nitrogen fertilizer: 氮肥(料)). The other development has been the rapid growth of knowledge of and technical sophistication in genetic engineering. Fertilizer prices, largely tied to the price of natural gas, huge amounts of which go into the manufacture of fertilizer, will continue to represent an enormous and escalating economic burden on modern agriculture, spurring the search for alternatives to synthetic fertilizers. And genetic engineering is just the sort of fundamental breakthrough that opens up prospects of wholly novel alternatives. One such novel idea is that of inserting into the chromosomes of plants discrete genes that are not a part of the plants’ natural constitution: specifically, the idea of inserting into nonleguminous plants the genes, if they can be identified and isolated, that fit the leguminous plants to be hosts for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Hence, the intensified research on legumes.

Nitrogen fixation is a process in which certain bacteria use atmospheric nitrogen gas, which green plants cannot directly utilize, to produce ammonia, a nitrogen compound plants can use. It is one of nature’s great ironies that the availability of nitrogen in the soil frequently sets an upper limit on plant growth even though the plants’ leaves are bathed in a sea of nitrogen gas. The leguminous plants—among them crop plants such as soybeans, peas, alfalfa, and clover—have solved the nitrogen supply problem by entering into a symbiotic relationship with the bacterial genus Rhizobium; as a matter of fact (as a matter of fact: adv.事实上), there is a specific strain of Rhizobium for each species of legume. The host plant supplies the bacteria with food and a protected habitat and receives surplus ammonia in exchange. Hence, legumes can thrive in nitrogen-depleted soil.

Unfortunately, most of the major food crops—including maize, wheat, rice, and potatoes—cannot. On the contrary, many of the high-yielding hybrid varieties of these food crops bred during the Green Revolution of the 1960’s were selected specifically to give high yields in response to generous applications of nitrogen fertilizer. This poses an additional, formidable challenge to plant geneticists: they must work on enhancing fixation within the existing symbioses. Unless they succeed, the yield gains of the Green Revolution will be largely lost even if the genes in legumes that equip those plants to enter into a symbiosis with nitrogen fixers are identified and isolated, and even if the transfer of those gene complexes, once they are found, becomes possible. The overall task looks forbidding, but the stakes are too high not to undertake it.

20. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) expose the fragile nature of the foundations on which the high yields of modern agriculture rest

(B) argue that genetic engineering promises to lead to even higher yields than are achievable with synthetic fertilizers

(C) argue that the capacity for nitrogen-fixing symbioses is transferable to nonleguminous plants

(D) explain the reasons for and the objectives of current research on nitrogen-fixing symbioses

(E) describe the nature of the genes that regulate the symbiosis between legumes and certain bacteria

21. According to the passage, there is currently no strain of Rhizobium that can enter into a symbiosis with

(A) alfalfa

(B) clover

(C) maize

(D) peas

(E) soybeans

22. The passage implies that which of the following is true of the bacterial genus Rhizobium?

(A) Rhizobium bacteria are found primarily in nitrogen-depleted soils.

(B) Some strains of Rhizobium are not capable of entering into a symbiosis with any plant.

(C) Newly bred varieties of legumes cannot be hosts to any strain of Rhizobium.

(D) Rhizobium bacteria cannot survive outside the protected habitat provided by host plants.

(E) Rhizobium bacteria produce some ammonia for their own purposes.

23. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following was the most influential factor in bringing about intensified research on nitrogen fixation?

(A) The high yields of the Green Revolution

(B) The persistent upward surge in natural gas prices

(C) The variety of Rhizobium strains

(D) The mechanization of modern agriculture

(E) The environmental ill effects of synthetic fertilizers

24. Which of the following situations is most closely analogous to the situation described by the author as one of nature’s great ironies (lines 28-32)?

(A) That of a farmer whose crops have failed because the normal midseason rains did not materialize and no preparations for irrigation had been made

(B) That of a long-distance runner who loses a marathon race because of a wrong turn that cost him twenty seconds

(C) That of shipwrecked sailors at sea in a lifeboat, with one flask of drinking water to share among them

(D) That of a motorist who runs out of gas a mere five miles from the nearest gas station

(E) That of travelers who want to reach their destination as fast and as cheaply as possible, but find that cost increases as travel speed increases

25. According to the passage, the ultimate goal of the current research on nitrogen fixation is to develop

(A) strains of Rhizobium that can enter into symbioses with existing varieties of wheat, rice, and other nonlegumes

(B) strains of Rhizobium that produce more ammonia for leguminous host plants than do any of the strains presently known

(C) varieties of wheat, rice, and other nonlegumes that yield as much as do existing varieties, but require less nitrogen

(D) varieties of wheat, rice, and other nonlegumes that maintain an adequate symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and produce high yields

(E) high-yielding varieties of wheat, rice, and other nonlegumes that are genetically equipped to fix nitrogen from the air without the aid of bacteria

26. The author regards the research program under discussion as

(A) original and extensive but ill-defined as to method

(B) necessary and ambitious but vulnerable to failure

(C) cogent and worthwhile but severely under-funded

(D) prohibitively expensive but conceptually elegant

(E) theoretically fascinating but practically useless

27. Most nearly parallel, in its fundamental approach, to the research program described in the passage would be a program designed to

(A) achieve greater frost resistance in frost-tender food plants by means of selective breeding, thereby expanding those plants’ area of cultivation

(B) achieve greater yields from food plants by interplanting crop plants that are mutually beneficial

(C) find inexpensive and abundant natural substances that could, without reducing yields, be substituted for expensive synthetic fertilizers

(D) change the genetic makeup of food plants that cannot live in water with high salinity, using genes from plants adapted to salt water

(E) develop, through genetic engineering, a genetic configuration for the major food plants that improves the storage characteristics of the edible portion of the plants

答案:17-27:DABDCEBCDBD

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