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Intelligence is defined as the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment. The reason why intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity is that intelligence is not made up of independent abilities, but qualitatively different abilities and these abilities can only be measured by measuring various aspects of these abilities.

Four major aspects contribute to intelligence. The first is awareness. Awareness means that a person?s behavior is purposeful, not instinctive or reflexive. The second is goal or direction. People behave in meaningful ways. The third point is rationality. People usually act in a manner that is understood by others. The last point is value. Others perceive the behavior of an individual as being useful. Together these aspects make up another definition of intelligence.

23 个性化教育的实现

The importance of working individually with the problems and potentialities of students must be emphasized. As we have had more and more students, this has become increasingly difficult. Our current grading system, with many students receiving poor grades, indicates that we are now mostly unsuccessful in helping the individual student. Grade inflation only further emphasizes this problem. Highly interactive computer material now makes this individualized attention possible. We need programs that continually probe the student, finding out at each instant what the student can and cannot do. Then, based on this knowledge, the program can offer individualized assistance. This approach combines learning and assessment into one seamless activity, not separating them as in current courses. Assessment is used to determine what learning material is to be presented next. As stressed, very little software of this type has been produced.

35 政治对教育的影响

The learners in our society should be knowledgeable about what effects politics may have on education. Such education may be well influenced by politics as power (from whoever may be in power). Power would be one of the two dimensions to the curriculum and power as domination is bad and removes justice. In such discussion we may remind that this curriculum was done in three versions with considerable change between the first and the last version. The vision of schools that we should remove streaming and that education should be inclusive and comprehensive has been "masked" in the last version due to political reasons. To conclude, in this new curriculum it is not the case of having the objectives listed at the beginning and then simply a description of how each should be achieved, but it is clearly seen that the vision and philosophy of the curriculum are consistent throughout. This shows that great planning has been involved in the design of this document.