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编辑点评: GRE作文是美国所有作文考试质量要求较高的,改革后的GRE考试在写作上要求更具体一些。我们在GRE写作的时候,平时也要注意大量素材的积累,以下是GRE作文备考资料大集合。



The four requirements for knowledge are: S knows that P if (1) S knows that P is true; (2) S believes that P is true; (3) S is justified in believing that P is true; (4) S.s justification in believing that P does not rest on any false beliefs. Without these requirements, you cannot have knowledge. Your thought may still be true, however, you cannot know something if it is possible it is not true. This brings us to how you know if what you think is true. However, it is impossible for us to have this certainty. Infallible knowledge is impossible for humans to obtain based on the fact that there is always a chance that we are mistaken. Yet, the Epistemist argues: the refutation of skepticism is pure and simple. I know that there is a piece of paper in front of me, for I see a piece of paper in front of me. Skepticism says that I do not know this. Therefore skepticism is wrong. However, just as in the Epistemist.s example, the only way we can obtain knowledge is through our five senses. Whether we learn something from a class lecture, reading a book, or touching something, we are relying on our senses to convey the knowledge to us.


A convenient definition of innovation from an organizational perspective is given by Luecke and Katz (2003), who wrote: "Innovation is generally understood as the introduction of a new thing or method. Innovation is the embodiment, combination, or synthesis of knowledge in original, relevant, valued new products, processes, or services."

Innovation typically involves creativity, but is not identical to it: innovation involves acting on the creative ideas to make some specific and tangible difference in the domain in which the innovation occurs. For example, Amabile (1996) propose: "All innovation begins with creative ideas. We define innovation as the successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. In this view, creativity by individuals and teams is a starting point for innovation; the first is necessary but not sufficient condition for the second".

For innovation to occur, something more than the generation of a creative idea or insight is required: the insight must be put into action to make a genuine difference, resulting in, for example, new or altered business processes within the organization, or changes in the products and services provided.


A further characterization of innovation is as an organizational or management process. For example, Davila (2006), write: "Innovation, like many business functions, is a management process that requires specific tools, rules, and discipline."

From this point of view, the emphasis is moved from the introduction of specific novel and useful ideas to the general organizational processes and procedures for generating, considering, and acting on such insights leading to significant organizational improvements in terms of improved or new business products, services, or internal processes.