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Imagine what will happen when the cost of a long distance telephone call becomes as low as the cost of a local call? Or, when you can get a driving license at a time and place of your own choosing? Or, when you can bank from the comfort of your own living room? In some countries, ICT is already making these happen. Many believe that the current technological revolution may in time exceed the Industrial Revolution in terms of social significance.

New technologies transform our lives by inventing new, undreamed of things and making them in new, undreamed of ways. The introduction of new technologies can have the following effects on society:

1. Initial productivity slowdown and delayed productivity payoff from the new technologies

2. Destruction of human capital (as many old skills are no longer wanted)

3. Technological unemployment (temporary but serious)

4. Widening disparities in the distribution of income, which tends to be temporary until the supply of labor catches up to the new mix of skill requirements

5. Big changes in regional patterns of industrial location (globalization)

6. Big changes in required education

7. Big changes in infrastructure (e.g., the information highway)

8. Big changes in rules and regulations (intellectual property, antimonopoly, etc.)

9. Big changes in the way we live and interact with each other


Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science. The field is defined by an interest in one of a set of “traditional” problems or an interest in central or foundational concerns in science. In addition to these central problems for science as a whole, many philosophers of science consider these problems as they apply to particular sciences (e.g. philosophy of biology or philosophy of physics). Some philosophers of science also use contemporary results in science to draw philosophical morals. Although most practitioners are philosophers, several prominent scientists have (and do) contributed to the field.

Issues of ethics, such as bioethics and scientific misconduct, are not generally considered part of philosophy of science. These issues may be studied in ethics or science studies.


1 亚里士多德观点: 知识的定义

“We suppose ourselves to possess unqualified scientific knowledge of a thing, as opposed to knowing it in the accidental way in which the sophist knows, when we think that we know the cause on which the fact depends, as the cause of that fact and of no other, and, further, that the fact could not be other than it is. Now that scientific knowing is something of this sort is evident—witnesses both those who falsely claim it and those who actually possess it, since the former merely imagine themselves to be, while the latter are also actually, in the condition described. Consequently the proper object of unqualified scientific knowledge is something which cannot be other than it is.”

—Aristotle, Posterior Analytics