1. 转折信号词 Contrasting Signals
but, on the contrary, instead, however, in spite of, by contrast, while, despite, unfortunately, although, while, on the other hand, though, whereas, otherwise
例如：剑6 Test 2 Section 4
One major problem with the first system was that C
A. only one person could be filmed
B. people could only see very short films
C. the camera was very heavy
录音原文：There were, however, a couple of problems with the system. The camera weighed over 200 kilograms and only one person at a time could see the film.
2. 肯定强调信号词 Positive Signals
in fact, actually, to tell you the truth, indeed, to be frank, the truth is that, must, certainly, it is likely that …
例如：剑7 Test 4 Section 2
录音原文：The Mangroves have been made more accessible to visitor by the boardwalk built during the park’s upgrade. You’d think that people would come here to look at the unusual plant life of the area, but in fact it’s more often used for cycling and is very popular with the local clubs.
3. 否定关系信号词 Negative Signals
no, not, none, never, neither, nor, seldom, scarcely, barely, rather than, instead of, hardly, rarely, too…to, few, little, at no time, by no mean
例如：剑8 Test 2 Section 4
Shona says that in her questionnaire her aim was ______.
A. to get a wide range of data
B. to limit people’s responses
C. to guide people through interviews
录音原文：I specifically wanted to do a questionnaire, interviews with a focus group. With the questionnaire, rather than limiting it to one specific point, I wanted to include as much variety as possible.
4. 表示解释说明 Explanation
It says/shows, the meaning is that, what I mean/mention, that is to say, in other words, Let me put it this way, it means that, another way of saying, the point is that
例如：剑6 Test 1 Section 4
5th-10th centuries new technology allowed the production of goods made of 32 ______ and ______
录音原文：The technology they introduced meant that metal and leather goods were produced there for the first time.
5. 表示例证关系 Illustration
For instance, Let’s take, A case in point, For example, An example of this is, In that case, suppose, Such as
例如：According to the speaker, George viewed Rosewood House as ______.
A. a rich source of material for his books
B. a way to escape from his work
C. a typical building of the region
录音原文：Moving to Rosewood allowed the family to start a new life. George regarded Rosewood as a pure example of a traditional country house of this part of England and did some of his most successful writing here.
6. 表示因果关系 Cause and Effect
Because, so, since, result in, because of, as, thus, due to, for, therefore, owing to, lead to, consequently, for this reason, as a result of, resulting from
例如：剑6 Test 2 Section 4
Longer films were not made at the time because of problems involving ______
A. the subject matter
B. the camera
C. the film projector
录音原文：A continuing problem at the time was that the films had a tendency to break when they were being played a problem which was caused by the tension between the two wheels, or reels as they are called, which hold the films.
7. 表示序列关系 Semantic Markers for listing
Firstly (first), to begin with, next, secondly (second), last but not least, What’s more, thirdly, finally, furthermore, In the first place, For one thing, also, my next point is, for another, In addition
例如：剑5 Test 1 Section 4
According to George Bernard Shaw, men are supposed to understand _____, economics and finance. However, women are more prepared to ______ about them.
录音原文：Back in 1928 the British writer George Bernard Shaw wrote in his Intelligent Women’s Guide to Socialism and Capitalism that A man is supposed to understand politics, economics and finance and is therefore unwilling to accept essential instructions. He also said, A woman, having fewer pretentions, is far more willing to learn.
8. 表示归纳关系 Semantic markers for summary
To summarize, In short, It amounts to this, Sum up, In brief, In a word, What I have been saying is this, In conclusion, On the whole, To conclude, Thus
例如：剑7 Test 3 Section 4
What is the impact of the outside environment on a hotel guest?
A. it has a considerable effect
B. it has a very limited effect
C. it has no effect whatsoever
录音原文：And the research concluded that what was outside the hotel building simply didn’t matter.