1. 名词并列: n1，n2，n3，…
a). A，B，C，… and other Xs
b). X，such Y as A，B，C，…
i. Reading，writing，listening and other academic subjects could be learned from books，or primarily from books.
ii. Some knowledge，such academic subjects as reading，writing，listening，could be learned from books，or primarily from books.
iii. It is of great importance for people to read imaginative literature，such as poetry，novels or mythology.
iv. It is of great importance for people to read novels and other types of imaginative literature such as poetry and mythology.
2. 名词性成分并列: n. + what/how/whether/if…
a). what=something that
b). how=the way/manner in which
i. Most parents educate their children merely by instinct rather than proper pedagogy，and usually do not care about their relationship with children and how much neglect influences the future development of their children.
ii. Most students are eager to obtain knowledge，but they lack the sense of what is good，or what is necessary and how much a deficiency in the concept of viewing the situation as a whole would mislead them.
iii. My fellow Americans，ask not what your country can do for you，ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizen of the world，ask not what American will do for you，but what together we can do for the freedom of man. (John Kennedy)
a). a1 and a2+n
d). a1，a2，so a3 that/as to…
i. a small town à a small and peaceful town
a good teacher à a good and very impressive teacher
a stupid decision à a stupid and incorrigible decision
ii. a simple yet effective method
a direct and simple yet magically effective method
an irrational yet understandable decision
a fair and balance，yet undesirable decision
an obvious yet not the most significant reason
iii. Most students can hardly stand for his typically dry and dull lectures that would normally continue at least several quarters without giving any essential information.
iv. The impact that technology has had on our daily life and society in general，is undeniable. It will become even greater as computers get faster，smaller，smarter，and so inexpensive that virtually everyone will be able to own one.
v. A class led by a lethargic teacher could be extremely dull，and so boring that drives everybody in the class into sleep.
vi. Learning in essence is a process that is time-consuming，painstaking， and so hard that virtually only persistent few can finally have a sense of real achievement.
a). ad1 and ad2+n
d). ad1，ad2，so ad3 that/as to…
i. A conscientious teacher always prepares his lecture carefully， intelligently，and with the full consideration of all possible aspects concerning the subject.
ii. Apart from energizing the athletes, physical strength helps them plough into the games enthusiastically and with confidence and even act as a deterrent force to their rivals to some extent.