16天搞定雅思写作Task 2- Day 16 A & D Essay Lesson

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【跟着沪江走,高分在招手】·【雅思备考·写作篇】

利弊类文章是雅思作文的基本题型之一。在这篇文章里,小编将对利弊型议论文的构思逻辑、论证思路等入手,希望通过今天的学习各位考生能掌握利弊型议论文的写作技巧。

让我们先看看今天要讨论的题目:

People now have the freedom to work and live anywhere in the world due to the development of communication technology and transportation.

Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?

Understanding the Task

对于这样的题型,我们要明确这是属于需要你陈述个人观点的利弊型议论文还是只是需要你如实将利弊两段描述出来而不需个人观点的文章。

如果题目为:“What are the advantages and disadvantages of…..”。很明显,这个题目并不要求你表达个人观点,只是简单地要求对该现象或事实的利弊之处进行讨论。

应对这类题型,文章主体只需要两段即可。一段用来谈论优点,另一段则讨论缺点。

然而,如果题目中出现了单词“outweigh”或者“Will this trend have more positive or negative effects?”的语句,那么题目就要求你表达自己的观点。你需要说明是优点还是缺点更多。

如果你没有这么做,失分就会是必然的。因为回答问题不完整导致了“Task Response”中的扣分。

如果你看了 《IELTS public band descriptors》,你就会知道不完整答题将导致你的分数降到该评判标准的5分线上。

如果你对评判标准不清楚,小编建议考生对此稍作了解

让我们看个例题:

People now have the freedom to work and live anywhere in the world due to the development of communication technology and transportation.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of this trend?

这个利弊题就没有询问你的观点。所以文章主体只需要一段“利”和一段“弊”。而下面的这个例题却有所不同:

People now have the freedom to work and live anywhere in the world due to the development of communication technology and transportation.

Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?

OR

Will this have more positive or negative impacts?

Writing your Thesis

“outweight”这个单词,在写作中要慎用。雅思考生曲解这个单词是常见的事。进而导致作文的观点和其陈述的内容截然相反。

比如,有的考试的观点是:the drawbacks outweigh the benefits ,而事实上,在对该观点的进一步论述中更多的提及的是“the benefits ”。这样也就导致了前后自相矛盾。

所以,如果你不确保能正确使用这个单词,小编建议你不要在利弊类写作中使用该单词。其实,你只需要将自己的观点用最简单的方式表达出来即可,如范文中的陈述方式:

I believe that this has more benefits than drawbacks.

这样也就避免了不必要的错误。

Planning and Organisation

你需要想出三个支持性的论据。

对于这三个论点,我们需要分作三段。一段描述利/弊,而另外两段描述对应的劣势/优势。

通常,我们会从对立观点开始。而对这个对立观点我们只需要提供一个论据即可。

上面提到的这些点很重要,尤其是对于想拿到7分甚至是7分以上的考生们而言。由于文章中体现的是你的想法和观点,所以如果你认为利大于弊,那么文章中应含有两点“利”和一点“弊”。

下面我们来看范文。

These days many people choose to live or work in other countries, which has been made possible because of the convenience of air travel and modern communications. I believe that this has more benefits than drawbacks. 

The disadvantage of this development is the distance that is put between family members. If a person moves away it is true that air travel and devices such as skype mean that communication and contact can be maintained. However, it is likely that a person will only be able to return one or two times a year during holidays, and speaking on skype or via email is not the same as face-to-face contact. 

Despite this, there are significant advantages it can bring to people’s lives. Firstly, it means that people have the opportunity to see other parts of the world and the way people live. For example, people from the West often go to work in Asia or the Middle East and visa-versa. This enriches many people’s lives as they get to learn about other languages, traditions, cultures and different ways of working from their own country.  

In addition to this, on a wider level it may also benefit other countries. If someone moves abroad for work, it is usually because their skill is required there. To illustrate, nurses and Doctors often move to work in hospitals in other countries when there is a shortage, so this is very valuable to the place they move to. 

I would therefore argue that although there are disadvantages of the current trend to live and work abroad, they are outweighed by the advantages. It can enrich people’s lives and lives of the people in the countries that they move to.  

(283 Words)

Comments

写作者的观点很明确。作者认为利大于弊。所以文章中提到的好处多于坏处。

观点清晰;结尾重申观点;论文主体围绕中心观点。这样的文章当然不会再让读者产生任何的误解。

Other Ways to Answer the Question

但是,上面提到的方法并不是解答这类型题目的唯一方法。想要解答这种题型,还可以通过其他的方式。

比如,有人建议主体两段:一段写优点,一段写缺点,随后在结尾段表明是利多弊少还是利少弊多,对上两段中提及的利弊之处做一个权衡。

主体两段的方法当然是可行的。但是考虑到优点和缺点两段分量相当,而你要想要表明两者并不想当,可能会让人感到无法理解。想要在结尾段把自己的观点传递给读者,对写作者的措辞能力和写作能力无疑是一种挑战。

你也可以只谈论优点或者只谈论缺点,并表达利远大于弊或弊远大于利的观点。但是,题目中所使用的单词不论是“outweigh”还是“more”,都暗示了利弊是同时存在的。

其实讨论利弊两面对写作构思更好。两方面讨论意味着写作范围的拓宽,也就是更多的写作素材。更重要的是,通过对利弊双方的讨论,你的观点会更加清晰地呈现出来。

上期文章:16天搞定雅思写作Task 2- Day 15 Personal Pronouns in Essays for IELTS

                

                

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