Task1 –Some school prevent students to put TV in the dormitory, What are the advantages and disadvantages of this policy? Please include specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Personally speaking, the police can bring students lots of benefits and its advantages overweight its disadvantages. There is no doubt that most of the students may complain about it because watching TV is an effective way for them to have a temporary escape from heavy study work lord and they are able to learn something from these educational programs such as documentary, history, animal world. However, exposing to TV for too long time can make students become “coach potatoes”, some students without good self control may addicted to watch TV, like soap opera, or some reality shows, which can enormously influence their study efficiency. Compared with watching TV, I suggest students to step out the dormitory and participating in some healthy activities like playing basketball or hiking to stretch their arms and legs, which can better release their pressure.
Task 2- Some people think newspaper are better than other media such as TV. Do you agree?
1) Newspaper cost less than other media, we have to pay for the electricity bills and cable fee. The money saved can buy more to get information or just used for other uses.
2) News on newspaper is completely at our disposal, we can read them over and over again anytime. While we cannot control the news broadcasting on TV to meet our own schedule.
1) It is more convenient to obtain the most up-to-date news cuz I can turn it on whenever I want. It is such a vast ocean of natural science and social science. And TV can report both news at home and abroad.
2) We can save a lot of time by watching TV or listening to radio. For me, I often turn on the radio when I am doing housework like sweeping or washing clothes.
3) Compared with newspaper, the images and videos as well as words on TV are more direct and vivid to perceive.
阅读：School proposal: hiring professional musician to instruct the show.
R1: Students can learn more from it.
R2: More students will be attracted to the show.
听力： The woman disagrees
R1: professional musician 很忙，在本市已经指导了几个show, 只能来campus once a week. 这样可能会拖累学生进度，不如让学生指导能够更好地了解show的排练进程。
话题是experienced good。People can only know its value after usage 所以需要sample。
听力：教授朋友卖给小朋友看的educational DVD. 刚开始就送了每个elementary school teacher first series. 然后学生觉得fun而且学到很多东西，所以很多老师回来购买，最后销量很好，success national wide.
Problem: the man 要搬出学校住，但是用不到电脑写他的literature paper所以想买laptop又没钱。
S1：work on extra hours
D1: too busy
S2: use money saved for trip to NewYork
A1: no working more better focus
Polar bear 适应swim in cold water 的两个features。
黑色帮助吸收阳光，虽然北极熊看起来是白色，但是skin underneath the fur 其实是黑色 can help trap sunlight.
-TPO部分对应参考 （论文科研 TPO13-C1/TPO17-C1）
Null hypothesis无效假说, 零假说
New computerizing and old computerizing
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating algorithmic processes—e.g. through computers. Computing includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media. The field of computing includes computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.
Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the using of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. In other words, green building design involves finding the balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council.
Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:
• Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
• Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity
• Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation
A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Although some green building programs don't address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes, others do, especially through public schemes for energy efficient refurbishment. Green construction principles can easily be applied to retrofit work as well as new construction.
Letter of reference/recommendation
Benefit future career
Collect data for papers
Work at the library
Qualification资格, qualified 合格的
Teaching assistantship 助教奖学金
Research assistantship 研究奖学金
Student union 学生会
到欧洲中世纪人口sharp decrease原因，在中世纪之前Roman Empire统治世界，从庞贝遗迹之类的都能看出那时候人口是很多的，但是中世纪的时候人口骤降是为什么呢？一个原因是建造房子的材料，中世纪的时候是organic material容易decay腐烂，所以没有找到什么证据。后面讲到demographic distribution map有些地方是空白的。
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages. It is an estimate of the number of people who were alive during the Medieval period, population trends, life expectancy, family structure, and related issues. In many ways, demography was one of the most crucial factors of historical change throughout the Middle Ages.
The population of Europe was stable at a low level in the Early Middle Ages, boomed during the High Middle Ages, reached a stable peak from about 1250-1350, then a number of calamities caused a steep decline, the nature of which historians have debated. Population levels then slowly expanded, gaining momentum in the early 16th century.
The science of medieval demography relies on various lines of evidence, such as administrative records, wills and other types of records, archaeological field data, economic data, and written histories. Because the data are often incomplete and/or ambiguous, there can be significant disagreement among medieval demographers.
Fishing aggregation，鱼群聚集现象。学生现提出两个可能：protect against predator/ food resource。然后两个Spanish challenge this说只有病娇的金枪鱼在成年之后还躲在漂浮物下，其他的鱼早就不躲了。老师举例说coloration过程，最后讲到 fishing aggregation device，捕鱼的人利用这个特质抓金枪鱼，但不捕未成年的。
A fish aggregating (or aggregation) device (FAD) is a man-made object used to attract ocean going pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). They usually consist of buoys or floats tethered to the ocean floor with concrete blocks. Over 300 species of fish gather around FADs. FADs attract fish for numerous reasons that vary by species.
Fish tend to move around FADs in varying orbits, rather than remaining stationary below the buoys. Both recreational and commercial fisheries use FADs.
Before FADs, commercial tuna fishing used purse seining to target surface-visible aggregations of birds and dolphins, which were a reliable signal of the presence of tuna schools below. The demand for dolphin-safe tuna was a driving force for FADs.
Fish are fascinated with floating objects. They use them to mark locations for mating activities. They aggregate in considerable numbers around objects such as drifting flotsam, rafts, jellyfish and floating seaweed. The objects appear to provide a "visual stimulus in an optical void", and offer some protection for juvenile fish from predators. The gathering of juvenile fish, in turn, attracts larger predator fish. A study using sonar in French Polynesia, found large shoals of juvenile bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna aggregated closest to the devices, 10 to 50m. Further out, 50 to 150m, was a less dense group of larger yellow fin and albacore tuna. Yet further out, to 500m, was a dispersed group of various large adult tuna. The distribution and density of these groups was variable and overlapped. The FADs were also used by other fish, and the aggregations dispersed when it was dark.
Topic 议题：the three functions of ceramic plates
The reading provides three functions of ceramic plates.
Refute the three explanations mentioned in reading passage.
the cooking pan will be black or the color will fade because of high temperature. However, these plates do not show such marks.
the sound of ceramic is not pleasant and also hard to make sounds. What’s more, people can use better material as drums, such as animal furs. Why would they use ceramic drums?
the sound of ceramic is not pleasant. What’s more, people can use better material as drums, such as animal furs. Why would they use ceramic drums?
The reading and listening materials have a conflict of opinions about the function of ceramic plates. The writer puts forwards three theories, which are contradicted by the following lecture.
Firstly, the writer claims that the ceramic plates can be used as cooking pans. while the speaker views this issue from an opposite angle. According to him/her, the cooking pan will be black or the color will fade because of high temperature. However, these plates do not show such marks.
Secondly, the author states that the ceramic plates can be served as drums. However，the speaker opposes the writer’s opinion by saying that the sound of ceramic is not pleasant. What’s more, people can use better material as drums, such as animal furs. Why would they use ceramic drums?
Thirdly， the passage argues that ceramic plates are used as mirrors. By contrast, in accordance with the speaker, the reading’s claim doesn’t hold water，only when ceramic plates are filled with water can they reflect images. In this case, people can not see the decorative side. Unlike the mirrors in ancient Greek， people often hold plates vertically.
In conclusion, the professor clearly identifies the weakness in the reading passage and convincingly shows these reasons are incorrect.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
All university students should be required to take history courses no matter what their professions are.
3. 诚然， 学习历史对于其他专业的学生增加了很多额外的学业负担，需要花很多时间去背诵记忆历史事件，还要在忙碌的期末考试之前多复习一门科目。但是我们的目光不能太狭隘，从长远来看学习历史课程的利远大于弊。
Being the cradles of knowledge, universities courses lay an extremely solid foundation for the future development of college students. In order to help students better informed about country’s past, some educators claim that history courses should be made compulsory to all university students. Personally, I agree.
Firstly, taking history courses provides students with great opportunities to see the world’s glorious and profound culture. By getting a closer look at the American revolution, a student can be enlightened, knowing the importance of equality and democracy. By learning about the history of renaissance, a student will be inspired by the core concept of humanism and precursors’ innovative spirit in terms of painting, sculpture and architecture. By understanding the four great inventions of ancient China, a student will be familiar with the traditional arts. If they only focus on their own major, they would definitely miss out on such great treasure。
Secondly，taking history courses promotes other subjects. Imagine a literature student. His transcript was dissatisfying in the past. However, things became to change after he took the history seminar. For one thing, celebrated individuals in ancient times inspired his writing. These celebrities’ qualities and achievements have a great influence on his works. For another, Comprehending the historical events, he became more insightful and thoughtful. It seems clear to me that it is the history courses that enable this student to make a great progress.
Admittedly，history courses, to some extent, exert more academic pressure on students. On the one hand, College students have already had to study many theories and professional subjects closely related to their majors. In this case, taking history courses makes their schedules tighter. On the other hand, A required histories courses would put extra financial burden on students, especially on those students who are from underprivileged families. However, this view is too nearsighted. In the long run, the benefits of taking history courses far outweigh its demerits. Just as an old Chinese saying goes, taking history as a mirror,one can judge the things form their pros and cons.
Based on the above analysis, taking history courses benefits students a lot.
henceforth=from past to now
in preference to=more than
相关背景学习：Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer
The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) is a satellite that observed the time structure of astronomical X-ray sources, named after Bruno Rossi. The RXTE has three instruments—the Proportional Counter Array, the High-Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE), and the All Sky Monitor. The RXTE observed X-rays from black holes, neutron stars, X-ray pulsars and X-ray bursts. It was funded as part of the Explorer program, and is sometimes also called Explorer 69.
RXTE was launched from Cape Canaveral on 30 December 1995 on a Delta rocket, has an International Designator of 1995-074A and a mass of 3200 kg.
Observations from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer have been used as evidence for the existence of the frame-dragging effect predicted by the theory of general relativity. RXTE results have, as of late 2007, been used in more than 1400 scientific papers.
In January 2006, it was announced that Rossi had been used to locate a candidate intermediate-mass black hole named M82 X-1. In February 2006, data from RXTE was used to prove that the diffuse background X-ray glow in our galaxy comes from innumerable, previously undetected white dwarfs and from other stars' coronae. In April 2008, RXTE data was used to infer the size of the smallest known black hole.
RXTE ceased science operations on 3 January 2012.
NASA scientists said that the decommissioned RXTE would re-enter the Earth's atmosphere "between 2014 and 2023".
相关背景学习：Causes of limited fresh water
There are many causes of the apparent decrease  in our fresh water supply. Principal amongst these is the increase in population through increasing life expectancy, the increase in per capita water use and the desire of many people to live in warm climates that have naturally low levels of fresh water resources. Climate change is also likely to change the availability and distribution of fresh water across the planet:
"If global warming continues to melt glaciers in the polar regions, as expected, the supply of fresh water may actually decrease. First, fresh water from the melting glaciers will mingle with salt water in the oceans and become too salty to drink. Second, the increased ocean volume will cause sea levels to rise, contaminating freshwater sources along coastal regions with seawater”.
The World Bank adds that the response by freshwater ecosystems to a changing climate can be described in terms of three interrelated components: water quality, water quantity or volume, and water timing. A change in one often leads to shifts in the others as well. Water pollution and subsequent eutrophication also reduces the availability of fresh water.
Also, there is an uneven distribution of fresh water. While some countries have an abundant supply of fresh water, others do not have as much. For example, Canada has 20% of the world's fresh water supply, while India has only 10% of the world's fresh water supply, even though India's population is more than 30 times larger than that of Canada. A reason for the uneven distribution of fresh water supply may be the differences in climate. For example, in some countries in Africa, the frequent lack of rain has led to insufficient water supply for irrigation. This has affected agriculture and has led to a shortage of food for the people.
These are sounds, calls, or audible signals made by any one species to its own or any other species, establishing boundaries so like or unlike species will not transgress those boundaries.
Male baboons make sounds heard for miles by other baboons, communicating to those other male baboons, the territory of that male baboon. The strength, volume, and timbre, inherent in that "call", determine whether or not rival males attempt to invade that male baboon's territory.
They do this to make them sound impressive and then to attract the female to them.
Courtship and/or mate attracting sounds
These are sounds made by the male baboon to attract females to his territory for courtship and mating. Again, the strength, quality, and timbre of those sounds, often determine the ability of that species to attract females for reproduction. These mating calls, often low and guttural, are the main criteria, used by the female baboon to determine which male she mates with.