四步破解托福听力主旨题

What is the main purpose of the lecture?
A. To help students understand what is required to launch a satellite
B. To describe new materials now being used to explore space
C. To describe a potential technology for space exploration
D. To show how ideas from science fiction often develop into actual technologies

ETS在设置选项关键词的时候经常会通过疑问词引导从句来入手，比如说上一道题里面的D选项里的“How ideas from science fiction often develop into actual technologies”。那么“How”引导的从句主要描述对象一般是一个“过程或方法”，所以这个地方我们要把它当作信息量很大的一个词组来看待--“科幻小说里面的想法如何一步步变成现实技术的过程”。其他常见的疑问词引导从句及其对应主要描述对象还有：
“What”引导的后面跟“特点或细节”
“Why”引导的后面跟“原理或由来”
“Which”引导的后面跟“选择(2个或以上选项)”
“Whether”引导的后面跟“抉择(A或B)、(是或否)”

What is the lecture mainly about?
A. Conclusions about the surface of Venus drawn from recent observations
B. The different types of volcanoes that have been found
on Venus
C. Similarities between geologic processes on Venus and
on other planets
D. New methods used to observe the surface of Venus
B选项里面的关键词是“Types of volcanoes”。那么如果听完这篇全文后我们会或多或少记得，文章里有讲到地球上面的火山可以分很多类，而相反的，金星上面只有一种火山--盾火山，那么“Types”这里的“s”复数就把这个选项给卖了。同样道理，C选项里面有三个复数名词：Similarities、Processes、Planets。前两个貌似不好判断其原文对应的单复数，所以咱们可以欺软怕硬地先略过。至于第三个“Planets”，原文里面由头到尾出现过的星球除了地球和金星完全没有第三个，所以这里小小的“s”也把整个选项给卖了。

What is the main purpose of the lecture?
A. To help students understand what is required to launch a satellite
B. To describe new materials now being used to explore space
C. To describe a potential technology for space exploration
D. To show how ideas from science fiction often develop into actual technologies

What is the main purpose of the lecture?
A. To help students understand what is required to launch a satellite
B. To describe new materials now being used to explore space
C. To describe a potential technology for space exploration
D. To show how ideas from science fiction often develop into actual technologies

A选项--“what is required to launch a satellite”。假设如果真的主要是讲“关于发射卫星所需要的条件”的话，那么这篇文章会以并列结构展开论述，并出现出现诸如“条件一”、“条件二”、“条件三”这样的信息;
D选项-“how ideas from science fiction often develop into actual technologies”。假设如果真的主要是讲“科幻小说里面的主意如何发展成现实里的技术”的话，那么这篇文章会以直线发展结构展开论述，并出现类似“一开始是什么idea”，“这个idea如何引起外界的重视”，“外界做了什么尝试来把这个idea在现实世界里复刻”，“最后结果怎么样”这样的信息。

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