-TPO部分对应参考 （论文科研 TPO13-C1/TPO17-C1）
Null hypothesis无效假说, 零假说
New computerizing and old computerizing
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating algorithmic processes—e.g. through computers. Computing includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media. The field of computing includes computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, and information technology.
Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the using of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. In other words, green building design involves finding the balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort.
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council.
Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:
• Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
• Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity
• Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation
A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Although some green building programs don't address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes, others do, especially through public schemes for energy efficient refurbishment. Green construction principles can easily be applied to retrofit work as well as new construction.
Letter of reference/recommendation
Benefit future career
Collect data for papers
Work at the library
Qualification资格, qualified 合格的
Teaching assistantship 助教奖学金
Research assistantship 研究奖学金
Student union 学生会
到欧洲中世纪人口sharp decrease原因，在中世纪之前Roman Empire统治世界，从庞贝遗迹之类的都能看出那时候人口是很多的，但是中世纪的时候人口骤降是为什么呢？一个原因是建造房子的材料，中世纪的时候是organic material容易decay腐烂，所以没有找到什么证据。后面讲到demographic distribution map有些地方是空白的。
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages. It is an estimate of the number of people who were alive during the Medieval period, population trends, life expectancy, family structure, and related issues. In many ways, demography was one of the most crucial factors of historical change throughout the Middle Ages.
The population of Europe was stable at a low level in the Early Middle Ages, boomed during the High Middle Ages, reached a stable peak from about 1250-1350, then a number of calamities caused a steep decline, the nature of which historians have debated. Population levels then slowly expanded, gaining momentum in the early 16th century.
The science of medieval demography relies on various lines of evidence, such as administrative records, wills and other types of records, archaeological field data, economic data, and written histories. Because the data are often incomplete and/or ambiguous, there can be significant disagreement among medieval demographers.
Fishing aggregation，鱼群聚集现象。学生现提出两个可能：protect against predator/ food resource。然后两个Spanish challenge this说只有病娇的金枪鱼在成年之后还躲在漂浮物下，其他的鱼早就不躲了。老师举例说coloration过程，最后讲到 fishing aggregation device，捕鱼的人利用这个特质抓金枪鱼，但不捕未成年的。
A fish aggregating (or aggregation) device (FAD) is a man-made object used to attract ocean going pelagic fish such as marlin, tuna and mahi-mahi (dolphin fish). They usually consist of buoys or floats tethered to the ocean floor with concrete blocks. Over 300 species of fish gather around FADs. FADs attract fish for numerous reasons that vary by species.
Fish tend to move around FADs in varying orbits, rather than remaining stationary below the buoys. Both recreational and commercial fisheries use FADs.
Before FADs, commercial tuna fishing used purse seining to target surface-visible aggregations of birds and dolphins, which were a reliable signal of the presence of tuna schools below. The demand for dolphin-safe tuna was a driving force for FADs.
Fish are fascinated with floating objects. They use them to mark locations for mating activities. They aggregate in considerable numbers around objects such as drifting flotsam, rafts, jellyfish and floating seaweed. The objects appear to provide a "visual stimulus in an optical void", and offer some protection for juvenile fish from predators. The gathering of juvenile fish, in turn, attracts larger predator fish. A study using sonar in French Polynesia, found large shoals of juvenile bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna aggregated closest to the devices, 10 to 50m. Further out, 50 to 150m, was a less dense group of larger yellow fin and albacore tuna. Yet further out, to 500m, was a dispersed group of various large adult tuna. The distribution and density of these groups was variable and overlapped. The FADs were also used by other fish, and the aggregations dispersed when it was dark.